Table of Content

    28 October 2019, Volume 0 Issue 5
    Integrated Management and Administration
    Analysis on Regional Joint Protection Mechanism and Development Strategy of Protected Areas in China
    FU Liqiang, ZOU Hongfei, MA Jianzhang, ZONG Cheng, CHENG Kun
    2019, 0(5):  1-6.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.001
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    With the gradual propelling of the protected area system construction with national parks as the main body,many problems existing in the classification and management of China's protected area system have been effectively settled.However,at present there are limitations in the localized management mode for protected areas,and lacking exchanges and cooperation,joint law enforcement and regional monitoring among protected areas hinders the development of protected areas and the construction of ecological civilization.Regional joint protection mechanism is the new approach for typical ecosystems and endangered species in situ conservation.It is in line with China's national conditions and the needs of social economic development.This paper summarized the common problems of the existing regional protection alliance for protected areas,and analyzed the importance and deficiency of regional joint protection mechanism,based on the information of the current status of regional protection alliance in China.The future development strategies of regional joint protection of protected areas was also proposed,to provide scientific references for gradually generalizing the regional joint protection mechanisms,better resolving the current problems existing in the nature reserve management system and promoting the construction of national parks and protected area system.

    Analysis on Key Points for Delimiting Boundory and Making Markers in Nature Reserves
    MA Wei, LIU Zengli, YING Guowei, TANG Xiaoping
    2019, 0(5):  7-11.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.002
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    Nature reserves are the most important part of natural ecological space in China,which also played a significant role in national ecological security.Due to influence factors of technology,management,nature and human,boundary delimitation and fixed marker work in nature reserves were relatively delayed.In this paper,we analyzed the present situation and exposed problems of boundary management in nature reserves,and presented a process for delimiting boundary in nature reserve,which including basic requirements,important basis,main principles,working procedure,deliverable achievement and special situation treatment.In conclusion,our study aim to provide theoretical foundation and technical guidance for delimitating boundary and making marker in nature reserves,so as to support and promote construction and management of nature reserves and other protected area.

    Study on Current Status and Dynamics of Land Prone to Desertification in China
    LI Qinfang, PAN Yue, ZHOU Senlin
    2019, 0(5):  12-17.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.003
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    Based on the national desertification and desertification monitoring data from 1994 to 2014,this paper summarizes the current status and dynamic changes of land prone to desertification in China in the past 20 years,research results:① the desertification land area in China is generally declining,from 1.7289 million km2 in 1994 to 1.7212 million km2 in 2014;②desertified land is mainly distributed in five typical provinces(autonomous regions) of Xinjiang,Uygur Autonomous Region,Inner Mongolia,Tibet,Qinghai,Gansu;③the desertification types are mainly gobi,flowing sand and fixed sand;④the degree of desertification gradually changed from very severe desertification to severe,moderate desertification,and moderate desertification to light desertification.At the same time,the reasons for the change of desertification land area in China are analyzed,and the targeted countermeasures are proposed.

    Feasibility Study on Establishing a National Park in Yancheng Yellow Sea Wetland,Jiangsu
    WANG Libo, JIANG Hui, REN Yijun, XIE Shengbin, AN Yuting
    2019, 0(5):  18-22.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.004
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    Since 1983,Jiangsu Yancheng rare birds wetland national nature reserve,Jiangsu Dafeng Milu national nature reserve,Jiangsu yellow sea National Forest Park and Yancheng tiaozini wetland park have been established successively in Yancheng Yellow Sea Wetland for more than 30 years,reserves have played a significant role in the rejuvenation of rare wild animal populations,biodiversity conservation,preservation of natural heritage,improvement of ecological environment quality and maintenance of national ecological security.The establishment of a national park in Yancheng yellow wetland will further enhance the biodiversity of Yancheng Yellow Sea Wetland and maintain the integrity,uniqueness and value of local natural resources.Under the guidance of 《overall plan for establish a national park system》 and 《guidance on establish national park based on national reserve》,this study will discuss the feasibility of integrating Yancheng's existing nature reserves to establish a national park by analysing the current situation of existing reserves in Yancheng wetland.

    Discussion on Wetland Protection and Restoration Along Wuliangsuhai Basin
    LU Feifei, ZHANG Yong, LI Xue, CHEN Cheng
    2019, 0(5):  23-27.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.005
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    Through in-depth investigation and analysis of the composition and distribution of wetland resources in the Wuliangsu basin in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River,as well as the threats and existing problems,the results show that the main causes of the regional wetland area shrinkage and serious swamping are natural drought,evaporation is nearly 10 times of rainfall,and water replenishment is not guaranteed.The expansion of human production and life,the protection of wetland resources have not received sufficient attention,and the concept of comprehensive management is not deep enough.In view of these threats and problems,this paper puts forward corresponding comprehensive countermeasures and suggestions of combining points,lines and planes.

    Study on Countermeasures for Prevention and Control of Illegal Logging Crimes from the Perspective of Ecological Security—An Empirical Analysis Based on 302 Court Verdicts
    WANG Zhi, LIU Hongguang
    2019, 0(5):  28-32.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.006
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    In order to effectively curb the continuous high incidence of illegal logging crimes and build prevention and control measures conducive to the construction of ecological civilization,302 cases of illegal logging crime of first instance were studied by empirical analysis method.The main body of crime is mainly young and middle-aged male farmers,most of whom have a junior middle school education.The subjective aspect of crime is to make profits and meet the needs of production and life.The objective aspect of the crime is that there are few cases of illegal cutting of young trees,the average amount of illegal cutting of trees is "huge",but the phenomenon of " light-penalization" is prominent.It is suggested to change the forest value of "emphasizing economic value but ignoring ecological value" from the perspective of understanding,promote forestry ecological poverty alleviation from the perspective of policy,establish the ecological legal interest of criminal law from the perspective of legislation,protect ecological security through multidimensional prevention and control measures,and build a beautiful China.

    Scientific Research
    Study on Stand Volume Models for Sub-compartment Forest Management Inventory in Beijing
    CHEN Xinyun, WANG Wenwen, ZENG Weisheng, DU Pengzhi, DANG Yongfeng, WANG Wei, MENG Jinghui
    2019, 0(5):  33-36.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.007
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    In order to solve the main problems of using angle gauge to estimate the stand volume in forest management inventory (FMI) of Beijing,the forests were divided into 10 different types according to dominant tree species (groups) based on the FMI data.Then,using the data of the 9th (2016) Chinese National Forest Inventory in Beijing,the non-linear models of stand volume for various tree species groups were developed with stand volume per hectare as the dependent variable and stand parameters and site condition parameters as the independent variables.The goodness-of-fit statistics of the models,i.e.,determination coefficient (R2),total relative error (TRE),standard error of estimate (SEE),mean systematic error (MSE),mean prediction error (MPE),and mean percent standard error (MPSE) were calculated.The results show that the models performed well and the values of R2 were all greater than 0.94,MPE’s were less than 5%,and MPSE were almost less than 10%.The models can be applied to estimate the stand volume in the FMI of Beijing.

    Carbon Storage and Carbon Density of Forest Vegetation and Their Spatial Distribution Pattern in Yunnan Province
    TANG Haofan, XU Yanhong, AI Jianlin
    2019, 0(5):  37-43.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.008
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    By using the data from the Second Survey of Forest Resource Inventory of Yunnan in 2016,we use the methods of Variable Biomass Extension Factor Method and average biomass computing method,and combine them with the calculation parameters of different age grades of each tree species.The carbon storage and density in different stands of forest are estimated and their spatial patterns are analyzed.The results show that the total carbon storage of forest vegetation is 892.596 Tg,and the average forest carbon density is 39.260 t/hm2.The carbon storage of arbor forest account for 95.67% of the total carbon storage;and that of trees Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis) and oak accounted for 58.34% of the total carbon storage of arbor forest;their amount increase with developed stages in time,and the carbon storage of young and middle-aged forests only account for 49.97% of the total carbon storage of arbor forest;both of carbon storage and carbon density in natural forest are higher than that in artificial growth forest and plantation forest.The spatial distribution of both of that in Yunnan province is generally higher in the western regions but lower in the eastern regions.For management consideration we suggest that geological and environmental conditions and anthropogenic effects may be the important factors leading to uneven distribution of that.It is an important way to improve the forest carbon storage and carbon storage per unit area in the whole province by strictly protecting and restoring the forest vegetation in the rocky desertification area,it is necessary to carry out the project of precise improvement of forest quality,strengthening the artificial afforestation,tending and the management toward the closure of forests in the mountain and raising the forest,etc.

    Tree Species Identification Using XGBoost Based on GF-2 Images
    CAI Linfei, WU Dasheng, FANG Luming, ZHENG Xinyu
    2019, 0(5):  44-51.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.009
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    Tree species distribution is an important indicator of forest resources monitoring,and it is also one of the difficulties in the application of remote sensing images in forest resources monitoring.Based on domestic GF-2 satellite imagery data,forest resources survey data and DEM data,combined with spectral,texture,index and topographic factors and other characteristics.Three classification algorithms,support vector machine,random forest and XGBoost,are compared,and the optimal algorithm (XGBoost) is selected according to classification accuracy.Four dominant tree species,broad-leaved trees,Pinus massoniana,Chinese fir and Phyllostachys pubescens,were classified by row feature selection.The results show that the total classification accuracy of XGBoost classification model is 83.58% and the Kappa coefficient is 0.77,which is significantly higher than that of support vector machine and random forest classification method.After feature selection,the classification accuracy of tree species has not been improved obviously,but the redundancy of features can be reduced,which provides a reference for feature selection and dimensionality reduction in small sample data.

    Study on Rapid Extraction of Eucalyptus Vegetation Information in Guangxi Based on GEE
    LU Xianjian, HUANG Yuhui, YAN Hongbo, ZHOU Lv, WU Chenlong, ZHOU Bin, LUO Le
    2019, 0(5):  52-60.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.010
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    In order to further improve the efficiency of forest(plantation) vegetation extraction based on remote sensing image,this paper takes Landsat8 OIL as experimental data on the Google Earth Engine(GEE) platform,and uses supervised classification,support vector machine,maximum entropy model,random forest and decision tree classification based on the actual construction of the experimental area.Line extraction and comparison of various methods are made.On this basis,the area of Eucalyptus in Guangxi was extracted by decision tree,and the experimental results were validated by Unmanned aerial vehicle image and Google Earth Pro historical image.The experimental process and results show that remote sensing vegetation information can be extracted efficiently and quickly by using GEE.Among the five methods in this paper,the decision tree classification method achieves the best results.The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficients of Eucalyptus extraction in the experimental area are 0.82 and 0.85,respectively.At the same time,the area of Eucalyptus extracted by decision tree in Guangxi is in good agreement with the statistical data,which shows that the decision tree classification method constructed in this paper has a good consistency with the results of large area.Rapid extraction of vegetation cover information in complex mountainous areas is of reference significance.

    Plantation Forest Parameter Estimation Based on UAV Data
    WANG Lin, LI Mingyang, FANG Zihan, LI Chao, QIAN Chunhua, XU Zhenyu
    2019, 0(5):  61-67.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.011
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    Unmanned aerial vehicle(UAV) has been widely used in forest resource investigation because of its low cost and high precision.The study on estimation and evaluation methods of main forest parameters using UAV high-resolution image and point cloud data can provide scientific reference for the spread and application of UAV technology in plantation forest survey.In this paper,experimental plantation forest of Taxodium mucronatum in the arboretum of Nanjing Forestry University was selected as the research object.The data of high-resolution image of UAV,point cloud and ground observation in 2018 were used as the main information sources.The number of trees,tree height,crown width and canopy closure were calculated by local maximum and seed point segmentation.The parameters are extracted and the accuracy is evaluated.The results show that:(1) the detection rate of the extracted tree is 0.92,the accuracy of the number of trees is 0.97,and the value of F parameter is 0.95;(2) the determination coefficient R2 of single tree height is 0.7957,the root mean square error RMSE of height is 0.5940,and the determination coefficient R2 of crown diameter is 0.8008,and the root mean square error RMSE of diameter is 0.8978.(3) The extraction rate of total crown area was 0.95,the accuracy rate was 0.93,and the F parameter was 0.94;(4) The relative error of canopy density precision was only 0.32 percent.Estimation of main parameters of plantation using UAV high spatial resolution data and a small amount of field survey data can replace the actual field survey of the whole forest,and has great application value in plantation forest survey.

    Study on Cloud Service Management System of Trees Attacked by Pine Wood Nematode Disease
    WU Honggan, WANG Chengbo, CHANG Yuanfei
    2019, 0(5):  68-75.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.012
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    Based on the analysis of the technical characteristics and research status of cloud platform,the demand analysis is carried out from the point of view of the supervision of pine wood nematode disease,and the corresponding technical approaches are given.This paper constructs a dead pine management system composed of two parts,the cloud service end and the mobile end,which provides the whole solution for the information collection and the standardization building database of the dead pine tree,and expounds the system function and the concrete work flow in detail.Cloud service management technique of trees attacked by Pine Wood Nematode Disease can provide technical support for the prediction of the disease in China,and also can lay a scientific foundation for the next big data analysis.

    An Empirical Study on Cultural Value of Scenic Type Forests with a Constraint Model of Environmental Carrying Capacity
    XIU Xintian, CHEN Qiuhua, HUANG Xiaoling
    2019, 0(5):  76-83.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.013
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    Try to use the scale of forest cultural currency to measure the value of forest culture.On the basis of absorbing and learning the existing research theories and research results of forest cultural currency,this paper constructs a scenic area type forest cultural value evaluation model based on the forest cultural currency as a measure based on the capacity of forest cultural resources and environmental carrying capacity.The evaluation model is used to empirically analyze the forest cultural value of Wujin Mountain National Forest Park,and the forest cultural value of Wujin Mountain National Forest Park is 154.45(Ten thousand forest culture currency).At the same time,this paper proposes the promotion and utilization of forest culture value of Wujin Mountain National Forest Park from the aspects of making full use of the cultural value of forest cultural resources,expanding the ecological capacity of forest cultural resources,and strengthening the forest cultural strength of forest parks.

    Research on Logical Checking Methods for Plot Data of Multi-period Forest Investigation
    GUO Hong, YOU Lei, LEI Xiangdong, XIE Yangsheng, HONG Lingxia
    2019, 0(5):  84-88.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.014
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    Logical inspection is an important part of the statistical work of forestry investigation,and it is also the verification and confirmation of the previous investigation data.Based on the data processing flow,this paper designs the pre-logical checking method and post-logical checking method.Pre-logical checking includes sample factor logic checking,sample tree factor logic checking and multi-period data correlation checking.Multi-period data correlation checking adds multi-period data vertical comparison on the basis of previous single-period data logic checking,which is conducive to dealing with various logical errors in data.After logical checking,the stand factors of the same period after statistical calculation are calculated and compared with those of the adjacent period,and most of the data input and program calculation errors can be checked out.At the same time,this paper uses VB and built-in SQL language to develop relevant program tools,and embeds the logic check method into the program.

    Experimental Design of Silviculture Targeting for Large Diameter Timbers Guided by Forest Vertical Structure
    JIANG Jun, CHEN Beibei, ZHAO Xiuhai, PANG Lifeng
    2019, 0(5):  89-94.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.015
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    The harvest of forest management is mainly in large-diameter trees.How to rationally and effectively adjust the structure of forest management stand to form a high productivity stand and take into account the economic and ecological benefits of high-quality target trees is an urgent problem to be solved.Based on the sample plot data of broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Jiaohe,Jilin province,this paper analyzed the vertical structure characteristics of forest,discussed the framework of forest development types,the design mechanism of operation method and the technical elements including full-cycle management,and proposed a design case of Korean pine-large-diameter timber operation method guided by the vertical structure of forest,in order to provide a realistic way for the cultivation of large-diameter timber of broad-leaved Korean pine forest and for forest management.This demencfration provided a model reference for the design of forest management practices.

    Study on Parameter Optimization for the Integrity of Tree Images Based on CT Scanning
    ZHAO Fangbo, LIU Deqing, YUE Depeng, YANG Tong, ZHAO Qixia
    2019, 0(5):  95-103.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.016
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    Using computed tomography(CT) technology in the field of non-destructive detection of trees,the paper designed a comparison test based on the imaging effect of different CT parameters,and explored the setting and optimization of the threshold of CT parameters for tree detection.Specific steps and methods:1) collect 12 specimens of tree discs,each sample takes 200 images according to different CT parameters;2) After grouping the images with different imaging integrity,the gray value of the image is extracted and the average gray value and standard difference of gray value of each image are obtained;3) using SPSS software to analyze the correlation between CT parameters and image integrity,and obtain the key parameters that affect the imaging effect of trees to set the threshold range.The results showed that the imaging of CT scanning trees was clear,the correlation between the parameters mAs and SP was 0.972,and the threshold range of mAs with an image integrity of more than 75% was 47 to 61.The SP threshold range is -66.4~-89.8.Three specimens of different ancient trees were collected,and the CT parameter threshold obtained by the experiment was used to scan the specimens to verify the rationality of the selection of CT parameter threshold.The results show that there is no obvious tree species difference in the range of selected CT parameters,which can meet the requirements of non-destructive testing of trees.

    A Review for Calorific Values of Plants
    LIU Xuemei, ZENG Weisheng
    2019, 0(5):  104-112.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.017
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    Calorific value of plants is an important index to measure the level of primary productivity.Firstly,the main achievements of domestic and foreign studies on calorific values of plants were reviewed,including:variation of calorific values of plants at different levels such as communities,families,species,clones and organs,and calorific values of litters and fuelwoods;difference of calorific values of plants on time scale such as season,age and community succession,and on space scale such as latitude,longitude and altitude.Secondly,the factors affecting calorific values of plants were summarized,including internal factors such as carbon content,ash content and organic matter content,and external factors such as natural environment,planting method,management measures and storage method.Finally,the limitations of previous studies on plant calorific values and the trends of future development were discussed.

    Research Progress on Blue Intensity of Tree Rings
    MU Xiaowei, YAN Ping, XU Jiannan, CHEN Ping, CAO Xinguang
    2019, 0(5):  113-120.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.018
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    Blue intensity is a new indicator of tree-ring density.Since its introduction in 2002,it has shown great potential for reconstructing summer temperature changes at high latitudes and high altitudes in the northern hemisphere due to its ease of operation and possible information on lignin density.This paper summarizes the principles and test methods of blue intensity,and summarizes the progress made by foreign blue intensity research.Through the discussion of several problems that need to be solved and the existing solutions,the research potential of blue intensity is further clarified,especially the possibility of conducting blue intensity research in China.

    Technical Application
    Discussion on Sky-land Integrated Forest Fire Prevention Monitoring System
    XU Xiaofeng, ZHANG Haolin, SUN Zhichao
    2019, 0(5):  121-129.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.019
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    In view of the current situation of forest fire prevention in China,this paper analyses the technical requirements of forest fire prevention supervision,and puts forward the integration of satellite remote sensing,aerial remote sensing,satellite communication and large data to build an sky-land integrated forest fire prevention monitoring system.Through the design of remote sensing monitoring subsystem,communication transmission subsystem and situation command subsystem,to solve the problems existing in forest fire prevention,such as inadequate acquisition and processing ability of multi-source observation data,poor real-time data transmission ability,inadequate on-site situation control and situation release ability.and comprehensively improve the capability of forest fire early warning,real-time situation monitoring,fire situation analysis and post-disaster assessment in China.And also,the capability of forest fire early warning,real-time fire situation monitoring,fire situation analysis and post-disaster assessment will be improved in an all-round way.

    Design and Implementation of “One Map” Annual Renewal System of Forest Resources in Fujian Province
    LIN Yu
    2019, 0(5):  130-135.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.020
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    The research target is the annual update management of “one map” of forest resources in Fujian province,based on the detailed analysis of the process of forest resource renewal in the province,constructing the design framework of “One Map” annual renewal system of forest resources in Fujian province based on SOA framework and 3S technology.The key technologies such as off-line editing of map-genus integration,online renewal technology,dynamic deployment expansion technology and Business-based Historical Version Management Technology are adopted to realize the annual renewal management system of forest resources at province and county level,assistant decision-making system of forest resources and user authorization management system provide support for forestry business application,Delimitation of red line for ecological protection,Assessment of Restrictive Indicators,Audit of Leading Cadres' Departure,Preparation of Forest Resources Balance Sheet,Resource Regulation and Decision-making.

    Design and Application of Decision Supporting System for Forest Tending Operation Plan
    JING Hui, WANG Wukui, ZHANG Jingran
    2019, 0(5):  136-144.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.021
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    In the context of natural forest protection,forest tending is currently the main mode of forest management,and the implementation of forest tending can promote the effective growth of forest stocks.Due to the weak management of the primary management unit,the unit area of forest resources in China is still at a low international level,and the forest management effect is not good.According to our country northeast area forest tending present situation,this paper designs the decision supporting system of the forest tending plan,which is used to assist the manager in the allocation of forest tending plan and the formulation of forest tending plan.Based on the idea of process management,this paper sorts out the forest tending business in Northeast China and establishes a model for decision makers and decision-making processes.A combination of production and framework is used to represent the knowledge used to determine the tending method,and a knowledge base and inference engine are constructed.The Activiti platform,which reflects the idea of process management,is used as the process engine to complete the system construction.It solves the problem of the distribution of tending funds in each operation forest farm,the positioning of small shifts and the choice of operation methods,and effectively improves the informationization level of forest tending operation plan and decision-making.

    Research Bulletin
    Forest Stability Evaluation Based on Mathematical Expectations—A Case Study in Jiangshan,Zhejiang Province
    YING Baogen, LIAO Wenhai, YAO Rentu, GE Hongli
    2019, 0(5):  145-149.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.022
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    Forest stability is a comprehensive feature of forest community structure and function,which determines the ecological function of forest.Two quantitative indicators,namely mathematical expectation of stand duration and mathematical expectation of tree duration,were proposed to measure forest stability in this study from a new perspective.Mathematical expectation of stand duration is the expected number of years that stand can exist after growing into forests.The mathematical expectation of tree duration is the number of years that trees can survive after growing up to standard for starting measure the DBH(5cm).The mathematical expectation of the duration of stand and tree for different forest categories in Jiangshan City was studied based on the data of sample plots of arbor forests in 2008 and 2016.The stand and tree stability of Jiangshan forest under the current management model are quantitatively evaluated by two sets of mathematical expectations.The results show that:1) the mathematical expectation of the stand duration of non-commercial forest in Jiangshan City is 41.46 a and that of commercial forest is 14.16 a when the cutting loss rate of forest > 50% regarded as interruption.The mathematical expectation of the stand duration of non-commercial forest is 95.64 a and that of commercial forest 34.89 a,when the cutting loss rate of forest stands > 50% but the standard of arbor forest is maintained regarded as uninterrupted.2) the mathematical expectation of the tree survival period of non-commercial forest is 20.58 a and that of commercial forest is 11.67 a.Regardless of the mathematical expectation of stand duration or the mathematical expectation of tree survival period,the mathematical expectation of non-commercial forest is significantly greater than that of commercial forest,that is,the stability of non-commercial forest is greater than that of commercial forest,which accords with the actual situation and operational expectation.It shows that the method of evaluating forest stability by using mathematical expectation of stand duration and mathematical expectation of tree survival period is feasible.

    Study on Plant Diversity of Main Forest Communities in Erlangshan National Forest Park,Shanxi Province
    GAO Yu, LI Xu, SU Lanting, GAO Runmei
    2019, 0(5):  150-156.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.023
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    Plant diversity of four major forest communities in Erlangshan National Forest Park in Shanxi Province was studied by richness and evenness indexes based on plot investigations.The results showed that:there were 40 species belonging to 22 families and 31 genera in the four community types.The diversity and evenness indexes of two natural communities,one pure forest of Pinus tabulaeformis and one mixed forest with Quercus wutaishanica were both higher than the other two forest communities.It indicated that stand origin,slope,vertical community structure and stand density had great influences on plant diversity of communities.The plant diversity of three natural forests was greater than that of one plantation.The diversity index was decreased with the increasing of slope.The species diversity of shurb layer was higher than that of the tree layer and herb layer.The species richness and diversity of the community was also decreased by the higher stand density.This study could provide theoretical basis for the management in erlangshan National Forest Park and the sustainable development of plant resources.

    Investigation and Analysis of Birds and Beasts in Liuliping Macaque Provincial Nature Reserve,Hebei Province
    WANG Penghua, FAN Jungong, CHEN Xiangyang, ZHANG Kan, LIN Qingqian, HOU Jianhua
    2019, 0(5):  157-165.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.05.024
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    In recent years,as a new monitoring method,infrared camera technology has been used in animal monitoring in China.From 1 October 2017 to 30 September 2018,69 infrared cameras were set up in the Liuliping Macaque Provincial Nature Reserve,Hebei province,to continuously monitor the mammals and the bird resources under the forest.The results showed that:1)cameras worked 26 860 effective working days,and 10 403 valid photos were obtained.A total of 5 orders,8 families,12 species of mammals and 7 orders,16 families,33 species of birds were identified.2)which 6 species are State Key Protected Animals in Class-II,namely species-Chinese Goral(Naemorhedus griseus),Koklass Pheasant(Pucrasia macrolopha),Goshawk(Accipiter gentilis),Peregrine Falcon(Falco peregrinus),Eurasian Hobby(Falco subbuteo)and Tawny Owl(Strix aluco),the relative abundance of rock squirrels(Sciurotamias davidianus),Hog Badger(Arctonyx collaris)and Asian Badger(Meles leucurus)was the highest.3)based on the analysis of the annual daily activity rhythm of the rock squirrels and Koklass Pheasant of the common mammals and birds,it was found that the annual diurnal activity curve of the rock squirrels is unimodal,and the activity is more frequent in summer and autumn.The annual daily activity rhythm of the Koklass Pheasant is mostly concentrated in the daytime,which is a diurnal animal.It is more frequent in spring and summer.4)in different seasons,the number of species(12 and 33)and shannon-weiner index(2.38 and 4.18)of mammals and birds were highest in autumn.