Accurate data on the population and survival status of wild plant are the basis for the plant diversity conservation.The Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Wild Plants make it clear that the wild plants administrative departments should periodically organize surveys of national key protected wild plants,and establish wild plants resource archives.Therefore,China launched the second national survey of national key protected wild plants in 2012.Based on the survey data,the population,community area and in situ conservation status of 283 species of national key protected wild plants in China are reported.Reasons for the changes of wild plant resources over the past 10 years are also discussed through comparative analysis between the first and second national survey of national key protected wild plants.In order to advance conservation and management of wild plants in China,several countermeasures and suggestions were put forward,including establishing a national platform for wild plant supervision and management,improving the plant diversity conservation system,and carrying out the wild plant rescue and conservation projects.
Taking the reform of the national park management system as reference,this paper summarizes the management mode of national parks,reasonably divides the central and local powers,and establishes the work coordination mechanism and other reform experiences,and analyzes the problems existing in the natural resource asset management system,such as the unclear division of responsibilities between the owner and the supervisor,the "exercise of ownership" system and mechanism,and the unclear boundary between the central and local powers.In order to sort out and learn from the natural resource asset management models of the United States,Germany,Japan,Russia and other countries,we put forward four measures to improve thenatural resource asset management system of national parks,including strengthening the implementation of the "two unifications" responsibility,exploring the management of property rights system,improving the ecological compensation system,and improving the purchase service system.
It is very common that state-owned land and collective land coexist in natural protected areas,and it is also true for national park.This is a great challenge to balance the relationship between interests of community residents and natural conservation with high quality for national park.The easement system for natural protected areas abroad has been implemented for many years.Based on the experience summary and refinement for conservation easement operation in Qianjiangyuan National Park construction area,this study first presents technical systems for management and assessment about conservation easement.The management system includes:management process,program preparation,investigation and verification,publicity,formation of servitude land authorization documents,contract signing,and management system construction.The assessment system includes:assessment object,contentand type,process,data acquisition,assessment of contract performance,collective forest land and rural contracted land resource assets and ecological benefit assesment.The two systems provide practical rules for the realization of unified protection and management of natural resource assets in national parks dominated by collective land,which is typical and exemplary for the high-quality construction of a system of natural protected areas with national parks as the main body and the promotion of innovation in the management system.
Using the Voronoi method to determine the target tree and neighbourhood tree has the problems of inaccurate edge correction and uncertainty of threshold size,which are not conducive to the quantitative description of the spatial structure of forest stand.To address these problems,this study set all the forest trees in Voronoi units that are less than 0.5 m from the sample plot boundary line and incomplete as non-objective trees,and introduced a regulation threshold Rmax for the distance between the target tree and neighbourhood tree to correct the problem of unreasonable selection of target tree and neighbourhood tree in the processing of edge effects in Voronoi spatial units.Based on the modified Voronoi spatial unit,a multi-objective ecological harvesting scheme was constructed and intelligently optimized by an ant colony algorithm.The results showed that the fitness functions of the four sample plots,M4,M8,M14 and M17,which had relatively poor stand spatial structure conditions among the 20 sample plots before regulation,were improved by 0.72,0.92,0.93 and 0.86,respectively,after regulation by simulated harvesting,which proved that the scheme has a better effect on optimizing the spatial structure of forest stand,and can provide a supportive tool for forest management decisions.
Based on the mensuration data of diameter at breast height(DBH)and tree height from 25 Plots of Cunninghamia lanceolata and 25 plots of Eucalyptus robusta in the annual monitoring and evaluation of national forest resources of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,the basic model with the highest simulation accuracy was selected from seven common tree height-DBH curve models,then stand dominant height and climate data were introduced to build generalized nonlinear models.The 10-fold cross-validation method was applied to test the models,and the estimation error of one-dimensional volume formula was evaluated.The results showed that:1)Among the traditional tree height-DBH curve models,Chapman-Richards model was the basic model with the highest accuracy;2)Compared with the basic model,the generalized nonlinear tree height-DBH model with stand dominant height and climate data had higher fitting accuracy.The determination coefficient(R2),mean prediction errors(MPE)and mean percent standard errors(MPSE)of Cunninghamia lanceolata model were 0.7976,0.58% and 13.91%,respectively,and those of Eucalyptus robusta model were 0.7207,0.62% and 11.58%,respectively;3)The volume calculated by the one-dimensional volume formula was quite different from the measured volume,especially the Eucalyptus robusta reach -13.51%,which exceeded the scope of forestry industry standards.It was worth noting that the relative error calculated by the binary volume formula and the generalized nonlinear tree height-DBH model is not above 0.5%.The generalized nonlinear tree height-DBH model of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Eucalyptus robusta can be well applied to practical production.
This study was conducted to investigate the light adaptability of 1-year-old Bruguiera gymnorhiza(L.)Lam.seedlings.The seedlings of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza were treated by light intensity simulation control experiment.The indices of plant height,basal diameter,Chl(a+b)content,Pn,MDA content,PRO content and SOD activity were measured after 20%,40%,60%,80% and 100% light intensity treatments.The effects of light on Bruguiera gymnorrhiza seedlings were analyzed by correlation and principal component analysis.The results showed,1)60% light intensity environment of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza seedling height growth fastest,100% light intensity environment of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza seedling base diameter growth fastest.2)The total chlorophyll content decreased with the increase of light intensity,but the net photosynthetic rate increased first and then decreased with the increase of light intensity.There was no significant difference in total chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate between 60% light intensity and 80% and 100% light intensity.3)Under 60% light intensity environment,the malondialdehyde content and proline content of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza were significantly lower than those under 20% light intensity environment,but the superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher than that under 20% light intensity environment.4)There was no significant difference in net photosynthetic rate,malondialdehyde content and proline content between 60% light intensity and 100% light intensity,but the activity of superoxide dismutase was significantly higher than that of 100% light intensity.5)Through correlation and principal component analysis,it was found that 60% light intensity environment was the best for the growth of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza seedlings.Therefore,the adaptability of 1-year-old seedlings to 60% light intensity was stronger than that of other light environments.The results showed that 100% light intensity had a certain light inhibition effect on 1 a Bruguiera gymnorrhiza seedlings,while 20% and 40% light intensity could not meet the needs of 1 a Bruguiera gymnorrhiza seedlings for light.The results provide a numerical reference for the appropriate shading treatment of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza seedlings in the process of ecological restoration.
In order to understand the effect of planting density on the growth model of Betula alnoides plantation,analytical trees were used to analyze its growth dynamics,to enrich the information related to plantation and provide the scientific basis for cultivation management.In Jiangcheng County,Pu'er City,Yunnan Province,based on the investigation for a 21-year-old B.alnoides plantation of established by different initial uneven row spacing(2 m×2 m×5 m,2 m×3 m×5 m,3 m×3 m×5 m and 2 m×2 m×10 m),the best growth models of the trees with different planting densities was analyzed based upon the 12 standard trees selected from each tree measure.The results showed that mean diameters at the breast height(DBHs)under bark,tree heights(THs)and timber volume under bark of the different planting densities for the 21-year-old stand trees were 16.8~17.5 cm,26.7~28.0 m and 0.274 3~0.333 8 m3,respectively,and the trees were still in vigorous growth stage.The peak growth differentiation of DBHs,THs,and timber volume at different planting densities was observed during 9~12,9~11 and 8~15-year-old,respectively,when the planting densities had significant (P=0.025~0.046<0.05,P=0.001~0.006<0.01) effect on the total volume increment.The best fitting predictive models for DBHs,THs and timber volume-ages of the different planting densities were generally dominated by the Richards model and Gompertz model,in which Richards model can be used for the growth analysis and prediction of DBHs,THs,and timber volume of B.alnoides plantation.
Sprouting regeneration is one of the main ways in which trees recover from harsh environments or disturbances.In order to understand the nutrient allocation pattern of each component of premature aging in Chinese buckthorn plantations,and to explore the relative accumulation rate of nutrients between rejuvenated offspring and aging mother plants.The stoichiometric characteristics of carbon(C),nitrogen(N)and phosphorus(P)of different components of 15a stands with premature aging characteristics were analyzed.The results showed that:1)The C,N and P content of each components ranged from 255.07~563.68,7.34~24.68 and 0.23~0.68 mg/g,and the C∶N,C∶P and N∶P ratios were 19.63~39.86,648.31~1 188.26 and 26.88~45.47,which differed among the components.2)The accumulation rate of C in the leaves,horizontal roots,and vertical roots of the mother plant was less than that of N or P.The accumulation rate of C in the trunk of the daughter plant was greater than that of N and P,and the accumulation rate of N in the horizontal roots was greater than that of P.3)In the combined change of C,N and P content,trunk of daughter plants,leaves of daughter plants and vertical roots contributed the most,while leaves of mother plants and horizontal roots contributed the least.It follows that:the carbon,nitrogen,and phosphorus accumulation capacity of Chinese buckthorn and its stoichiometric ratio differed among the components,with a greater role played by offspring compared to mother plants and vertical roots compared to horizontal roots.The main nutritional characteristics of premature aging plantations are low carbon accumulation capacity and low C∶N and C∶P ratios in mother plant leaves and horizontal roots,which means that "carbon limitation" or "carbon starvation" is the main nutritional reason for premature aging in plantations.
The characteristics ofsoil urease and its relationship with soil physical and chemical properties in typical monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern Yunnan were systematically analyzed by field investigation and indoor analysis.The results showed that:1)The urease activity in 0~<10 cm soil layer[2.23 mg/(g·24 h)]was higher than that in 10~20 cm soil layer[1.69 mg/(g·24 h)],but there was no significant difference between the two soil layers.2)Soil urease activity in typical monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern Yunnan was significantly positively correlated with soil natural water content,total porosity,saturated water holding capacity,organic carbon content,hydrolyzed nitrogen content,total nitrogen content and total phosphorus content (P<0.01),and significantly negatively correlated with soil bulk density,pH value and total potassium content(P<0.01).3)The key influencing factors of soil urease activity were soil moisture,structural factors(soil water content,saturated water holding capacity,bulk density and total porosity)and soil carbon and nitrogen factors(soil organic carbon,hydrolyzed nitrogen and total nitrogen),followed by carbon nitrogen ratio(C/N).More attention should be paid to soil moisture,structure management and soil carbon and nitrogen regulationin the forest management in southern Yunnan.This study can lay the foundation for further study of soil material cycle process and provide reference for the formulation of forest resources management measures.
Forest soils play an important role in the global carbon cycle,and research on the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and its influencing factors in plantation forests can help to understand the dynamic changes of soil carbon sink in plantation forests.Taking Quercus variabilis plantation in Dengfeng Forest farm,Henan Province as the research object,186 sample squares(10 m×10 m)were set in the forest by systematic sampling method,and the spatial distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon were analyzed by geostatistical methods,and the main factors influencing soil organic carbon were identified by constructing and using structural equation models.The results showed that the average soil organic carbon content of Quercus variabilis plantation was 18.59 g/kg,and its spatial distribution was patchy,with a more dispersed distribution of high and low value areas;while the average soil organic carbon density was 2.47 kg/m2,and its spatial distribution characteristics showed a high consistency with the soil organic carbon content,but the overall distribution was more uniform;the results of correlation analysis showed that soil organic carbon content and density were significantly and positively correlated(P<0.05)with stand factors such as diameter at breast height and tree height,and with soil factors such as total soil nitrogen and soil available phosphorus;the results of structural equation showed that both soil organic carbon content and soil organic carbon density were most influenced by soil chemical properties,with the highest contribution of total soil nitrogen.This study can provide some references for revealing the mechanism of soil carbon sink formation in artificial forests and developing technical measures for soil carbon sink regulation.
To studythe species composition,zonal composition and biodiversity of Pinus koraiensis plantation communities under short- and medium-to long-term near-natural management.It provides a reference for restoration and biodiversity conservation of Pinus koraiensis plantation forests in Liaodong Peninsula.Near-natural management of 12 and 45-year-old Pinus koraiensis plantations was used as the study object.The community characteristics and species diversity were analyzed using the community sample survey method.The results showed:1)In the 12-year-old community,there were 29 species of higher plants belonging to 19 families and 23 genera.In the 45-year-old community,there were 142 species of higher plants belonging to 54 families and 96 genera.2)With the growth and development of Pinus koraiensis,the distribution types of the community species increased,the number of species increased,and the distribution range expanded.Among the species distribution types,North Temperate>Cosmopolitan>E.Asia & N.Amer,disjuncted;the temperate component was the most abundant,followed by the cosmopolitan component,and the tropical componentwas the least abundant.3)From 12- to 45-year-old,the Pinus koraiensis community remained in a pure forest state,but the species communityof thediversity increased significantly,and the trend of positive succession was obvious.The close-to-nature management cycle of Pinus koraiensis plantation was very long,and the positive succession was obvious;The biodiversity of the community under short-term management was relatively low,and it was not significantly enhanced until the middle management period.The theory of ecological niche and density dependence can well explain the ecological succession of Pinus koraiensis plantation,which has a good guiding role in the restoration of Pinus koraiensis plantation in Liaodong Peninsula.
Hopea hainanensis is a national level Ⅰ key protected wild plant,and it also belongs to a wild plant with extremely small populations.It is urgent to conduct conservation research on Hopea hainanensis populations,because of the few adult trees in the wild and the severe recruitment limitation from seedling to sapling life stage.To understand the characteristics of suitable communities of Hopea hainanensis,7 sample plots of 20 m×20 m were set up in the primary forest and secondary forest in Jianfengling,Hainan.The similarities and differences in species composition,species diversity,importance value and niche width of Hopea hainanensis communities under the two habitat types were analyzed.The results showed that:1)A total of 294 species of woody plants belonging to 75 families and 168 genera were recorded in the suitable communities of Hopea hainanensis,with a large proportion of monotypic families,oligotypic families,monotypic genera and oligotypic genera.Lauraceae,Fagaceae,Rubiaceae and Symplocaceae are the dominant families in the Hopea hainanensis communities.2)There was no obvious dominant species in both the primary forest and the secondary forest,but the functional status of Hopea hainanensis was much stronger in the secondary forest.3)Hopea hainanensis showed a wide niche range in both primary forest and secondary forest,indicating that this species is more competitive for resources.In addition,the larger niche width in primary forest than that in secondary forest indicated that Hopea hainanensis is more adaptable to the environment of primary forest. Our results provide basic data for revealing the structure and development trend of the suitable community on Hopea hainanensis,which is of great significance for the restoration and protection of the wild plant with extremely small populations.
Rhus chinensis is an important economic tree species.The diversity and variation of 10 phenotypic traits of Rhus chinensis in 13 regions of Guizhou Province were analyzed by field investigation.The results showed that the Shannon-Weaver index of 10 phenotypic traits ranged from 1.16 to 2.02,with an average of 1.88,and the diversity index was relatively high for leaf margin serration number,ground diameter and number of inflorescence.The genetic variation coefficient ranged from 10.72% to 39.44%,with an average of 25.80%.Among these traits,the genetic variation coefficient was relatively large for the traits of ground diameter,crown width,and plant height of Rhus chinensis.Correlation analysis showed that there was a significantly positive correlation between plant height,crown width,ground diameter and number of branching,and there was a significant positive correlation between inflorescence number and leaf margin serration number.Principal component analysis simplified 10 phenotypic traits into 4 principal components,with a cumulative contribution rate of 84.37%.The core traits with high contribution rate were ground diameter,plant height,leaf width,leaf shape index,leaflet number and inflorescence number.Cluster analysis revealed that Rhus chinensis populations from 13 regions were divided into four clusters based on 10 traits.Rhus chinensis germplasm resources in Bijie and Shibing were clustered into Class Ⅰ,Xifeng Rhus chinensis germplasm resources into Class Ⅱ,Kaili and Guiding Rhus chinensis germplasm resources into Class Ⅲ,and the remaining 8 areas into Class Ⅳ.In conclusion,the 13 regions of Guizhou Province exhibit a significant level of genetic variation in Rhus chinensis germplasm resources,and their plant morphology,leaf and inflorescence traits are rich in genetic diversity.
Moose is a national first-class protected animal in China.Studying the habitat quality of moose is a key step to protect moose population.In this paper,taking Heilongjiang Nanwenghe National Natural Reserve as an example,the habitat suitability of moose was evaluated using maximum entropy model(MaxEnt)and habitat suitability index(HSI)model.Moose distribution points data was gathered from unmanned aerial vehicle transect survey,the maximum entropy model was used to get the environmental factor contribution and single environment variable response curve,combined with natural geography of the Reserve,the evaluation model was set up based on the impact of different environmental factors on moose to evaluate the moose habitat suitability of reserve quantitatively.The results showed that altitude(20.3%),slope(11.4%)and distance from river(11.3%)were the main environmental factors affecting the habitat distribution of moose,while slope aspect,slope position and vegetation coverage had less effect on moose habitat.Moose prefer to live in forested area with low altitude,moderate slope,sunny slope,and prefer to live close to river,far away from human disturbance and in areas with high coverage.In the reserve,the area of high suitable habitat for moose is 424.6 km2,accounting for 18.5% of the total area.The area of low suitable habitat is 1 422.9 km2,accounting for 62% of the total area.The area of unsuitable habitat is 447.5 km2,accounting for 19.5% of the total area.
Pine wilt disease(PWD)is a forestry pest epidemic that poses a major threat to the survival ofpine trees.High-resolution satellite remote sensing is an effective approach for identifying PWD-infected pine trees.The Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Inventory Satellite(Goumang Satellite),which was launched on August 4,2022,has a four-band camera with a spatial resolution of more than 2m.The purpose of this paper is to investigate the vegetation index(VI)threshold approach for demonstrating PWD detection using Goumang Satellite multispectral data.Based on the multispectral characteristics of PWD discolored pine trees,an identification strategy based on two biomass-related and pigment-related VIs is proposed and a pine wilt disease index(PWDI)is designed.A test of PWD identification was conducted in Qixia City,Shandong Province.The results demonstrated that the double-VIs identification method outperformed the single-VI strategy,with the combination of PWDI and NDVI having the best PWD recognition capacity,with an overall accuracy of 84.5%,followed by the combinations of NWI-NDVI and NGRDI-NDVI.PWDI outperformed the other five examined VIs in terms of identification performance while using a single-VI method.This research demonstrates that the Goumang Satellite has a high potential for rapid and reliable detection of PWD discolored pine trees,and that the suggested double-VIs identification technique and the new PWDI can serve as a model for other comparable satellites used for PWD monitoring.
Aboveground carbon(AGC)is an important indicator of the basic characteristics of forest ecosystems and a theoretical basis for evaluating the functional structure and productive potential of forests.As one of the nine key forestry counties in Zhejiang Province,Songyang County has a very important ecological status,so the accurate estimation of forest AGC in Songyang County is an important reference value for the stability evaluation of forest ecosystems and forest management in Songyang County.However,Songyang County is dominated by medium and low hilly areas surrounded by mountains,and how to consider the influence of complex terrain on the temporal and spatial variation of AGC is an urgent problem to be solved to achieve accurate estimation of AGC in mountainous forests.Therefore,based on Landsat TM satellite imagery and forest AGC survey data in Songyang County,a geographically weighted regression model(GWR)combined with spatial variation characteristics was constructed to estimate forest AGC,and compared with the results of ordinary least squares(OLS),finally,the optimal model was selected to predict forest AGC and its spatial distribution in Songyang County.The results were asfollows:Texture information from Landsat TM satellite imagerywas important for predicting forest AGC in Songyang County;The GWR model accurately estimated the AGC and spatial distribution of forests in Songyang County,and improved the accuracy by 9% over the OLS model,with an R2 of 0.71.The total AGC of forests in Songyang County was 3.901×106 Mg,with an average AGC of 23.70 Mg/hm2,accounting for about 10% of the total AGC of forest vegetation in Lishui City,which had a relatively important position in serving regional ecological functions.The study will provide advanced technical tools for accurate estimation of forest AGC in Songyang County,as well as scientific data for evaluating the function of forest carbon sink in Songyang County.
The occurrence of forest fires is closely related to the moisture content of vegetation canopy combustibles.Using high-precision,large-scale,and high-efficiency remote sensing image inversion to obtain the moisture content of vegetation canopy combustibles is of great significance for effective prevention and control of forest fires.Pinus tabulaeformis is one of the main tree species causing forest fires due to its physical and chemical properties.This study takes Pinus tabulaeformis in Chongli District,Zhangjiakou as the research object.Based on Sentinel 2B remote sensing images and measured moisture content dataof Pinus tabulaeformis,multiple linear regression models,nonlinear regression models and multiple nonlinear regression models were established for the moisture content of Pinus tabulaeformis canopy combustibles.Using the coefficient of determination(R2)and root mean square error(RMSE)to evaluate model accuracy.The results indicated that the nonlinear model was generally superior to the linear model;The multivariate nonlinear model established through multiple independent variable factors better reflected the moisture content of Pinus tabulaeformis canopy combustibles,and the model had higher inversion accuracy,which provided a certain theoretical basis for the selection of vegetation canopy fuel moisture inversion model methods.
In order to detect forest fires in the first time and avoid serious consequences caused by forest fires,a detection model YOLO-SCW with forest fire smoke as the main target is proposed,and the SPD-Conv layer is introduced based on YOLOv7 to reduce the problem of missing features of small targets in the feature extraction process.Then,the Coordinate Pay module is added in the pooling part of the detection head pyramid,and the location information is encoded into the channel,which increases the attention of the modelto the target and reduces the interference of the background on the detection effect.Finally,the WIoU rectangular box loss function is used to improve the regression speed and accuracy of the prediction box.During the test,the improved YOLO-SCW increased by 9.1% compared with the mAP of the YOLOv7 model,and reduced the false detection and missed detection,which proved that YOLO-SCW has better feature extraction and generalization ability,and has excellent performance for forest fire smoke detection tasks.
Understanding the characteristics of soil potassium release under different land use patterns is highly significant for impoving land use and fertility in Aeolian sandy soil.This study used indoor simulation experiments and equation fitting methods to investigate the process,influencing factors and kinetic characteristics of non-exchangeable potassium in the soil in Zhanggutai area of Liaoning Province.The findings revealed two distinct stages of potassium release:rapid release(18~90hrs)and slow release(90~520hrs),with generally higher release in the 0~<20 cm depth compared to the 20~40 cm depth.Different land use types exhibited a positive impact on non-exchangeable potassium release.Specifically,the broad-leaved forest demonstrated the highest cumulative release in the 0~<20 cm soil layer,while the paddy field exhibited the highest release in the 20~40 cm soil layer.The Elovich equation yielded the best fit for the release process of non-exchangeable potassium in Aeolian sandy soil,with determination coefficients(R2)ranging from 0.96 to 0.98 and standard errors(SE)ranging from 0.97 to 2.78.The subsequent best fit was observed with the first-order kinetic equation,and the equation parameters accurately described the potassium supply capacity of Aeolian sandy soil.Non-exchangeable potassium release in the surface soil was closely correlated with soil potassium content,while in the subsoil,it was associated with soil colloid content.
Based on the survey of ancient and famous tree resources in Zhejiang Province,the analytic hierarchy process(AHP)was used to construct the value evaluation system of ancient and famous trees considering the factors of ecological economy,landscape aesthetics,social culture and scientific research.The ancient trees were scored according to the evaluation index scoring standard,and the comprehensive value of ancient and famous tree resources in the province was quantitatively evaluated with reference to the market value,and then the overall distribution and urban spatial characteristics were analyzed.The results show that :The comprehensive value of ancient and famous trees in Zhejiang Province is 724.605 billion yuan,the ecological economic value is 78.710 billion yuan,the landscape aesthetic value is 354.868 billion yuan,the social and cultural value is 109.118 billion yuan,and the scientific study value is 181.909 billion yuan.The ratio of the four is 1∶4.51∶1.39∶2.31.The comprehensive value distribution of ancient and famous trees in Zhejiang Province is generally uneven,showing a decreasing distribution pattern from southwest to northeast.The two high-value gathering areas are Shaoxing Kuaiji Mountain Area and Lishui National Park Area,and the eastern plain and coastal areas are value depressions.Through the horizontal and vertical comparison between different regions,the characteristics of the distribution of ancient and famous tree resources can be revealed from the perspective of value,which can provide an objective basis and countermeasures for the government departments at all levels in Zhejiang Province to scientifically formulate the strategic planning for the protection and development of ancient and famous tree resources and scientific decision-making on the investment of ancient and famous tree protection funds.
The lack of corresponding inspection and evaluation of the implementation status of forest management plans is one of the important reasons for the low quality and ineffective implementation of forest management plans in China.This article proposes the overall idea and the processes for inspecting and evaluating the implementation status of forest management plans,clarifying the construction of an inspection and evaluation index system from two aspects,i.e.the degree of implementation of planning tasks and the degree of achievement of management goals.By directly comparing the planning content of forest management plans with forest management operations and their results,the implementation rate of forest management plans is calculated,and the implementation status and effectiveness of forest management plans are visually inspected and evaluated,which helps to promote the specific implementation of the forest management plan system.