Table of Content

    28 June 2019, Volume 0 Issue 3
    Integrated Management and Administration
    Top-level Design of the Natural Protected Area System in China
    TANG Xiaoping, JIANG Yafang, LIU Zengli, CHEN Junzhi, LIANG Bingkuan, LIN Chen
    2019, 0(3):  1-7.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.001
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    This paper interprets the Guidance for Establishing the Natural Protected Area System based on National Parks.According to the practicalities of situation of natural protected areas in China and the principles of reform,innovation and international integration,from the perspective of national top-level design,this paper elaborates the great significance,the core idea and basic connotation of constructing natural protected areas based on the national parks with Chinese characteristics.And It puts forward the classification system and development goals of natural protected area system and clarifies the basic tasks,such as establishing a unified hierarchical and classified management system for innovating the regulatory mechanism of scientific norms,promoting the integration and optimization of natural protected areas,solving the historical issue and constructing the guarantee mechanism of the governance system of natural protected areas.

    Study on Grassland Management Policy in China
    WANG Hongbo, HAN Aihui
    2019, 0(3):  8-13.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.002
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    The paper analyzes the status and characteristics of grassland resources in China,and discusses the difficulties and problems faced by grassland resources management.In order to implement the reform of ecological civilization system and realize the sustainable utilization of grassland resources,the paper suggests that the scope of grasslands should be rationally defined,the grassland space planning and usage control should be strengthened,the system of grassland property rights protection and paid use should be improved,the production mode of grassland animal husbandry should be changed,the management of grassland protection and utilization should be strengthened,infrastructure construction and supervision and law enforcement should be strengthened.

    Guolin Group Model:the Exploration and Practice of the Loan Mechanism of National Reserve Forest Project ——Based on the Case Study of Hechi
    QI Lian, YAN Junjie
    2019, 0(3):  14-19.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.003
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    The construction of national reserve forests is an important measure of ecological civilization construction.In order to solve the practical problems in the operation of the national reserve forest project,Hechi has actively explored and tried to establish a new mode of the operation of the project,namely the Guolin Group model.Guolin Group Co.,Ltd.has the characteristics of comprehensiveness,publicity and bridge ties.It solves the problems faced by the government,financial institutions and the construction main body of forestry by increasing credit enhancement measures,broadening sources of repayment,improving the comprehensive value assessment system of forest resources,and optimizing loan mechanisms.The Guolin Group model is the result of the local practice exploration in Hechi.Its experience and practice has a strong guiding significance for local practice and has a strong reference value for improving the project of national reserve forests.

    Study on Establishment of the Technical System for Monitoring Air Negative Oxygen Ion in China
    LIAO Chengzhang, HOU Meng, ZHUO Ling, HUANG Guilin, TANG Xiaoping
    2019, 0(3):  20-25.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.004
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    Content of air negative ion is one of the important indices characterizing air quality.This study first presents a technical system for monitoring air negative oxygen ion based on the monitoring pilot of seven cities at national scale.The technical system includes:(1) designing and planning,construction and code for monitoring fields,(2) requirements of hardware,software and calibration for monitoring devices,(3) requirements of monitoring indices,data sampling,transferring,store and their file names,data processing and statistics,and requirements of data averages and its validities,(4) grade classification of content of air negative oxygen ion,(5) content,time and platform of outcome releases,(6) automatic check of software,manual check of data,devices maintenance at monitoring sites,(7) assessment and recommendations.This system will be of important significance to guide,standardize and speed up the monitoring of air negative oxygen ion in China.

    Study on Construction of the Protection and Management Mechanism of National Parks
    WANG Jinrong, GUO Zhenyuan, XU Peng
    2019, 0(3):  26-29.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.005
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    In this paper the characteristics of the national parks,their development,the combination of tourism economy and ecological protection,richness in regional history and culture,the overlapping and long management were discussed through the analysis of the status and characteristics of national park management.It proposed that the current construction of national parks should go both ways and the system should be improved.Differentiating protection objects,optimizing integration,differential management should be made and the national park development plan should be formulated and accurately supervised and monitored the ecological quality should be improved and other countermeasures provided.

    Comprehensive Evaluation and Analysis of Chinese Wildlife Hometown Operation
    MENG Meng, MA Jianzhang, JI Jianwei, ZHOU Xiaorui, HU Xinxin
    2019, 0(3):  30-35.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.006
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    In this paper,the analytic hierarchy process(AHP) is used to screen the evaluation indexes of wildlife townships,and a reasonable and effective evaluation index system is established.The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to evaluate 83 wildlife townships in China.The proportion of excellent,good and medium-level wildlife townships is 31.33%,46.99% and 21.69%.Based on the evaluation results and field investigation,in view of the problems of habitat disturbance by human activities,backward infrastructure and absence of professionals in wildlife conservation,the paper puts forward some policies,such as scientifically carrying out local habitat survey,formulating long-term protection plan,and perfecting local protection laws and regulations,and perfecting training mechanism for professionals.

    Empirical Analysis on Evaluation Index System of State-owned Forest Farm Modernization
    LIU Zujun, MA Longbo, WU Chengliang
    2019, 0(3):  36-40.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.007
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    In order to deepen the reform of state-owned forest farms,innovate the development of state-owned forest farms and realize the modernization of state-owned forest farms,it is imperative to construct the evaluation index system of state owned forest farm modernization.This paper puts forward the significance of modernization evaluation of state-owned forest farms and the construction principle of index system,and selects representative index to construct evaluation system.Analytic hierarchy process(AHP) and subjective assignment method are used to determine the index weight and its score,and then to determine the modernization level of the evaluation object.According to the evaluation index system,the modernization level of A-state-owned forest farm in Hubei Province is evaluated,and the evaluation conclusion is obtained.The comprehensive evaluation index reached 90.138 points,which met the identification criteria of modern state-owned forest farm.

    Research on the Habitat Suitability Assessment Indexes of Père David's Deer in Non-breeding Seasons
    LIANG Bingkuan, LI Yiping, CHEN Qi, LIU Yaxin, ZHANG Shumiao
    2019, 0(3):  41-48.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.008
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    Habitat is animal's survival environment,made up of biological and abiotic environment.In this paper,according to Père David's deer's habitat distribution characteristics,Père David's deer's habitat suitability influencing factors are divided into abiotic factors,biological factors and disturbance factors.According the principle of hypervolume niche,using Père David's deer's research result in biology,ecology,the study is conducted on Père David's deer's habitat suitability evaluation index in China.In many influence factors,vegetation,food,water,interference,habitat types,ecological security are identified as the main evaluation factors affecting Père David's deer's habitat suitable,Père David's deer's habitat suitability assessment model is formulated ,and the corresponding scores given.The results provide reference for Père David's deer's habitat evaluation in our country.

    Study on the Present Situation and Development Countermeasures of Chenghai Lake Protection and Management in Northwest Yunnan
    ZHAO Jinlong, ZHU Shirong, LÜ Kaijia, KE Dehua, GUO Cheng
    2019, 0(3):  49-53.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.009
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    Chenghai Lake is one of the nine plateau Lakes in Yunnan Province.Chenghai Lake is an important ecological security barrier in the northwest of Yunnan.This paper analyzes the causes of water pollution in Chenghai Lake and the main problems in the process of protection and management,and proposes countermeasures for strengthening the space management and control of Chenghai Lake basin,water resources protection,water pollution prevention,water environment improvement,and water ecological restoration.

    Ideas on Development of a Smart Sandstorm Monitoring System
    TIAN Haijing, LIU Xusheng, SUN Tao, PAN Hongxing
    2019, 0(3):  54-56.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.010
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    In view of the new period,how to make full use of new technologies to build a new sandstorm monitoring system and promote sandstorm intelligent stage is what we need to think.Here,we puts forward the overall idea of constructing a monitoring system integrating "sky network","ground network" and "human network",building a big data center for sandstorm monitoring and disaster assessment,and finally building an intelligent monitoring cloud platform.The intelligent sandstorm monitoring cloud platform has the functions of synchronization between satellite and ground,automatic receiving of satellite data,automatic accurate monitoring and rapid response of sandstorm weather and automatic abnormal alarm.

    Scientific Research
    Evolution and Jump Features of Ecological Vulnerability of the Typical Karst Wetland Watershed
    ZHANG Chao, WEN Guojing, LIU Yungen, WANG Yan, LIU Peng, ZHANG Zixia
    2019, 0(3):  57-65.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.011
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    The ecological vulnerability of the Puzhehei karst wetland in 2006-2015 was analyzed based on the comprehensive analysis method of ecological analysis and ecological vulnerability,and the combination of the Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System technology.The spatial-temporal evolution and mutation of the vulnerability were further evaluated.The comprehensive index of ecological vulnerability in Puzhehei karst wetland decreased in 2006-2015,and the level of the ecological fragility was medium.In addition,during this period of time,the spatial and temporal distribution pattern of the ecological vulnerability in the Puzhehei river basin was scattered and the extremely fragile area was shifted from the lower reaches in the Puzhehei basin to the upper reaches.What's more,the area of extremely fragile areas decreased and the trend of deterioration of ecological vulnerability was eased.The entropy of ecological vulnerability had mutations in 2006-2015.The ranking results of the mutation eigenvalue was:stage 2(2009-2012)>stage 1(2006-2008)>stage 3(2012-2015).The results revealed the reason why ecological fragility in the study area changed was the superposition of natural factors and human factors.However,the main driving factors which affected the ecological fragility were the land use,landscape pattern,pollution evolution,and economic development etc.

    Species Diversity Characteristics of Vegetation Communities in Different Succession Stages in Pingtan Island
    ZHENG Xinxuan, ZHANG Zengke, LIN Huazhen, LIN Xin, WANG Qi, HUANG Liujing
    2019, 0(3):  66-73.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.012
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    Taking the natural secondary forest in Pingtan Island as the research object,this paper analyzed the changes of species composition,important value and species diversity of shrub-grass,coniferous forest,mixed wood and broadleaf forest and discussed community species diversity differences among Pingtan Island and surrounding islands and land areas.The results showed that there were 53 families,89 genera and 104 species in the four forest.Margalef index,Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index of the community types and the various levels showed an upward trend from shrub-grass to mixed wood,and a downward trend in broadleaf forest.The change of Margalef index,Shannon-Wiener index at the various levels was as follows:tree layer was mixed wood>broadleaf forest>coniferous forest,shrub layer was mixed wood>coniferous forest>broadleaf forest>shrub-grass,and herb layer was mixed wood>broadleaf forest>coniferous forest>shrub-grass.In one-way anova,the Margalef index,Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index of the tree layer were significantly different between mixed wood and coniferous forests(P<0.05).Shannon-Wiener index of shrub layer and herb layer was significantly different between mixed wood and shrub-grass,broadleaf forest(P<0.05).The species diversity level of Pingtan Island is significantly lower than that of Putuoshan Island and the land areas.

    Investigation and Diversity Analysis of Road Greening Tree Species in Major Urban Areas of Hangzhou City
    WU Yu, LU Chu, WEI Wei, FENG Rui, LUO Kun, WU Xiaohua, SHEN Yamei, YAN Shaojun
    2019, 0(3):  74-79.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.013
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    By using sampling survey method,greening tree species along 19 roads in the main urban areas of Hangzhou were investigated.The tree species structure and frequency of urban road greening in Hangzhou were analyzed,and the species richness index,shannon-weiner index,Simpson index and Pielou index were calculated.The results showed that there were 33 species of road greening trees belonging to 24 families and 31 genera.There were 12 species of trees and 21 species of shrubs.Among them,Cinnamomum camphora and Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum appearance frequency is more than 50%,60.71% and 60.71% respectively.The diversity index of different road greening species is different,and the top 10 of the diversity comprehensive index are:Qingchun East Road(0.9570),>North Ring Road 1(0.9428),>West Ring Road 1(0.9373),Tianmushan Road 1(0.9218),>West Wen Road(0.9162),>East Fengqi Road 2(0.9113),>North Ring Road 4(0.8462),>North Ring Road 3(0.8288),>North Ring Road 2(0.8082).

    Classification and Ordination of Plant Communities in Przewalskii Horse Reintroduction Area of Kalamaili Nature Reserve in Xinjiang
    ZHU Siyu, LIU shanhui
    2019, 0(3):  80-85.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.014
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    Plant communities in Przewalskii Horse Reintroduction Area of Kalamaili Mountain Ungulata Nature Reserve in Xinjiang are investigated.Two-way Indicator Species Analysis Method(TWINSPAN) and Principal Component Analysis(PCA) are applied for classification and ordination.According to research results,there are 35 species,26 genera and 18 families of plants in Przewalskii Horse Reintroduction Area,which are mainly xerophyte and mesoxerophyte arbors,shrubs,herbs and other types of eremophytes.The dominant groups are Chenopodiaceae,Leguminosae,Poaceae and Asteraceae plants.They can be categorized into five vegetation-type communities.The main components of vegetation-type communities in this area respectively include Stipa capillata,Sagebrush,Ceratoides latens,Phragmites australis,Leymus racemosus,Salsola collina and Ephedra.

    Vegetation Classification and Coverage Based on RS/GIS Technology—A Case Study of Kunming City,Yunnan Province
    XU Xinhui, LIU Jian, ZHOU Xingyu
    2019, 0(3):  86-93.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.015
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    Vegetation classification and coverage reflects the distribution and variation of plants.Based on the study area of Kunming in Yunnan Province,the temporal and spatial variation of vegetation classification and coverage in recent three years was analyzed by means of RS and GIS technology in this paper,which has important practical significance to the local ecological sustainable development.The result showed that coniferous forest and broadleaf forest were widely distributed in the study area,grassland mainly in the northern mountain valley while shrub and artificial vegetation were mainly distributed around the waters and urban areas during 2013-2015,The vegetation area of shrub and grassland decreased by 12.72% while the area of artificial vegetation and other land use increased by 12.82%.The vegetation area NDVI>0.5 in the study area increased by 31.52% with an upward trend during 2013-2014,while it decreased by 6.1% with a negative growth from 2014 to 2015.Vegetation coverage in the study area exhibited different variation characteristics according to elevation and slope difference.The areas with high vegetation coverage were mainly distributed in the altitude of>2500m and the slope gradient of>25°,while the vegetation coverage was low in the areas of altitude <1000 m and slope gradient <5°.The areas with great changes were distributed in the altitude of 1000-2500m and the slope gradient of <5°.On the contrary,the areas with little changes were found in the areas of altitude>2500m and slope gradient>25°,where there were less human activities.

    Tree Species Composition and Diversity of 34 Year-old Schima superba Forest by AMPR Based on Stratification
    LI Zhiming
    2019, 0(3):  94-98.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.016
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    The tree stratum of 34- year-old Schima superba forest by AMPR(Artificial Measures Promoting Regeneration) was stratified obviously to 2 sub-strata(sub-stratum I and sub-stratum II) by MLRP(Maximum Light Receiving Plane) method.The tree height in sub-stratum I was higher than or equal to 16.5 m.It was typical S.superba community which was composed by 33 tree species and the important value of S.superba(the dominant tree species) was 26.68%.There were 8 and 30 tree species in sub-stratum I and sub-stratum II respectively.The important value of S.superba(the absolutely dominant tree species) in sub-stratum I was 49.77%.Its species richness(R),Shannon-Wiener index(SW),evenness(E) and ecological dominance(ED) in tree stratum were 33,4.37,0.87 and 0.08 respectively.Which in sub-stratum I were 8,2.40,0.48 and 0.26 respectively and in sub-stratum II were 30,4.41,0.88 and 0.06 respectively.Its average stand DBH,height,density and growing stock in tree stratum were 14.2 cm,18.4 m,1 875 N/hm2 and 262.9 m3/hm2 respectively.Its average stand DBH in sub-stratum I and sub-stratum II were 23.9 cm and 9.6 cm respectively.Its average stand height in sub-stratum I and sub-stratum II were 21.9 m and 12.1 m respectively.Its percentage of stand density in sub-stratum I and sub-stratum II were 23.0% and 77.0% respectively.Its percentage of growing stock in sub-stratum I and sub-stratum II were 75.2% and 24.8% respectively.

    Evaluation on the Value of Forest Ecosystem Service Functions in Kunyu Mountain National Nature Reserve
    SUN Zhongyuan, WANG Zhengmao, QU Honghui, LIU Chengjie, WU Xiaoming, LI Dongqin, ZHOU Shan, LI Weibing
    2019, 0(3):  99-106.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.017
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    In this paper,the forest ecosystem of Kunyu Mountain National Nature Reserve is taken as the research object.According to the Forest Ecosystem Service Function Assessment Standards(LY/T1721-2008),this paper studies the conservation of water resources,the conservation of soil,carbon dioxide fixation and oxygen production,forest nutrient accumulation,purification of atmosphere,biodiversity protection and forest recreation function.The conclusions are as follows:the total value of the service functions provided by the forest ecosystem in Kunyu National Nature Reserve is 1.2484 billion yuan per year and the value per unit area is 16420 yuan/ha.By comparing the value of seven forest ecosystem service functions,the results are obtained as biodiversity(352.7 million yuan/year)>water conservation(279.2 million yuan/year)>carbon dioxide fixation and oxygen production(274.9 million yuan/year)>purification of atmosphere(222.6 million yuan/year)>soil conservation(93 million yuan/year)>forest recreation(22.7 million yuan/year)>forest nutrient accumulation(3.3 million yuan/year).

    Effects of Six Typical Halophytes on Salt Soil Nutrients
    GUO Jia, XU Hualing, ZHANG Mingqian, XU Weigang, MA Muyuan, ZHAO Nana, LI Xiaoxia, ZHU Yaojun
    2019, 0(3):  107-112.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.018
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    By means of field in situ method,six typical halophyte plants(Salicornia europaea,Suaeda salsa,Limonium bicolor,Atriplex centralasiatica,Aeluropus sinensis,Puccinella tenuiflora) communities were selected to study the effects of six plant growth on the characteristics of soil available N,available P,available K,organic matter,total N in different growth stages.The results showed,compared with the initial stage of plant growth,the soil available N contents in the communities of Salicornia europaea,Limonium bicolor,Atriplex centralasiatica,Aeluropus sinensis,Puccinella tenuiflora were significantly reduced in the late stage of plant growth,and the soil available P contents in the communities of Atriplex centralasiatica,Aeluropus sinensis,Puccinella tenuiflora were significantly reduced in the late stage of plant growth.Soil available K contents decreased along with the plant growth,but the decrement did not reach a significant level.Soil organic matter and total N did not change along with the plant growth.This study can provide theoretical reference and basis for the improvement and management of saline land in the future.

    The Litter Storage Capacity and Water-holding Characteristics of 5 Typical Forests in Baihua Mountain
    GONG Yinting
    2019, 0(3):  113-117.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.019
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    Taking five typical forest types in the Baihuashan National Nature Reserve as the research object,the litter accumulation and water holding characteristics of the five forest types in Baihuashan were quantitatively analyzed.And the results show that,among the litter accumulations of 5 types of forests in Baihua Mountain,Larix gmelinii(15.75 t/hm2)>Juglans mandshurica (9.99t/hm2)>Picea meyeri (10.27t/hm2)>Mongolia oak (7.34t/hm2)>Betula nigra (7.04t/hm2),the proportion of undissolved layer in litter layer of coniferous forest was significantly higher than that of broad-leaved forest;among the total water holding capacity of 5 forests in Baihua Mountain,Larix gmelinii(2.91mm)>Juglans mandshurica (2.77mm)>Betula nigra (1.90mm)>and Mongolia oak (1.83mm) >Picea meyeri (1.29mm);in the litter layer of coniferous forest,the water holding capacity of undissolved layer is greater than that of semi-decomposed layer,while in the litter layer of broad-leaved forest,the water holding capacity of semi-decomposed layer is greater than that of non-decomposed layer.The accumulation and hydrological effects of litter in the undissolved layer of coniferous forest were higher than those in the semi-decomposed layer,while those in the semi-decomposed layer of broad-leaved forest were higher than those in the undissolved layer.

    Dynamic Effects of Root Pruning on Growth and Root Morphology in P.elliottii×P.caribaea Cuttings
    LIN Changming, PENG Guanming, HUANG Zengyue, HUANG Ting, SITU Wendou, LI Zhen, GUO Wenbing, ZHAO Fencheng
    2019, 0(3):  118-123.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.020
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    The container grown cuttings of P.elliottii×P.caribaea were cultured with air root pruning(RP) or without(control).The height of the raised bed were 30 cm,50 cm and 70 cm for the RP cuttings,respectively.The parameters including height,ground diameter,shoot biomass,root biomass,root length,root surface area,root diameter and fine root ratio,were monitored monthly within half a year.Although the root morphology was affected,no significant effects were found on cutting growth and biomass by root pruning.The root length was significantly increased in the RP cuttings at 70 cm-height bed 4 months after treatment.However,the root system of the RP cuttings changed from elongation to diameter growth.The fine root ratio decreased,and the root diameter increased compared to the control.The correlation between the growth and root diameter increased gradually,whereas the correlation between the growth and root length tended to decrease.It was implied that the changes in root morphology in RP cuttings would benefit the cutting growth.It is recommendes to use 70 cm-height bed for air root pruning for P.elliottii×P.caribaea cuttings.

    Responses of Photosynthesis and Fluorescence of Picea pungens Englenan on Soil Drought Stress
    SONG Dan, NING Mingshi
    2019, 0(3):  124-131.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.021
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    This paper explores the responses of photosynthesis and fluorescence of Picea pungens Englenan on soil drought stress in Inner Mongolia region and clarifies the quantitative relationship between them and soil moisture.In this study,3-year old Colorado blue cedar potted seedlings were used as experimental materials,and the relative water content of soil(RWC) was controlled at 13.3%-83.3%.The combination of artificial water supply and natural water consumption was adopted to simulate the soil drought process under natural conditions,and the response process and mechanism of photosynthesis and fluorescence parameters of the leaves were analyzed.The results showed that the surface temperature gradually increased with the increase of the relative water content of the soil under increasing drought stress,and the surface temperature showed a sharp increase trend after RWC5.Surface humidity shows an opposite trend.As the soil relative water content(RWC) gradually reduce,the leaf gas exchange parameters are the changes of the lower of the first increase trend,among them,the leaf net photosynthetic rate(Pn),transpiration rate(Tr),water use efficiency(WUE),stomatal conductance(Gs) are maximum when relative soil water content for RWC5,illustrates the leaf gas exchange parameters there is a close relationship with the soil relative water content.Superoxide dismutase(SOD),peroxidase(POD) and catalase(CAT) first increased and then decreased with the relative water content(RWC) of the soil,which reached the maximum at RWC5,and then decreased sharply when the relative water content of the soil exceeded RWC5.Malondialdehyde(MDA) decreased with RWC.Regression analysis showed that Pn and WUE of leaves and RWC of Colorado blue cedar presented unitary quadratic equation(P<0.01).In addition,the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of the leaves of the Colorado blue cedar show a trend of increasing and then decreasing with the relative water content of the soil(RWC),reaching the maximum at RWC5.When the relative water content of the soil exceeds RWC5,the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters drop sharply.Which shows that the Colorado this leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters on soil moisture have obvious response threshold,the threshold point of soil relative water content is about RWC5,below the threshold of leaf photosynthetic rate from stomatal limitation to the stomatal limitation,damage to the photosynthetic parameters,the electron transfer,photosynthetic mechanism is damaged.

    Study on Soil Microbial Characteristics of Primitive Broad-leaved Korean Pine Forest
    ZHAO Yichen, ZHANG Xin, ZHANG Junqing
    2019, 0(3):  132-138.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.022
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    The soils of the spruce-red pine forest,the maple-brown pine forest,the eucalyptus red pine forest and the Mongolian pine-song pine forest in the Liangshui National Nature Reserve were studied.The dilution plate method and microplate method were used to study soil microbial characteristics between different soil layers of the four forest types.The results showed that the total microbial population of four forest types varied from 1.60 to 620 million cfu/g,and the difference of bacterial content was the largest.The difference of soil microbial activity among different forest types reached a significant level(P<0.05).The average color change rate of ECO microplates cultured under constant temperature for 24 h showed a consistent law of increasing gradually with time,until the rising speed of 168 h tended to be gentle.The diversity indices of soil microbes in four forest types showed a trend of decreasing with the increase of soil depth,and the differences among different forest types in the same soil layer were significant(P<0.05).The carbon source produced a strong metabolic capacity,which further verified the ammonium-promoting properties of Pinus koraiensis.From the principal component analysis(PCA),the metabolic capacity of various forest types and the underlying soil microorganisms on various carbon sources appeared spatially.The more significant differences are consistent with the AWCD values and the various diversity indices.

    Dynamic Study on the Heat Island Effect and Landscape Pattern in Nanjing
    GUO Jiqiang, PAN Jie
    2019, 0(3):  139-146.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.023
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    In this study,Landsat5 TM(2000)and Landsat8 OLI_TIRS(2017)were used to derive land surface temperature based on radiative transfer equation,and the landscape pattern indices were calculated to analyze the evolution of the thermal landscape pattern in Nanjing.Then the relationship between urban landscape pattern and thermal environment was analyzed with mutiple linear regession model.The results showed that,from 2001 to 2014,the heat island effect was obviously enhanced,and the high temperature area of heat island increased substantially,and there was a higher growth in Liuhe,Jiangning and Pukou than that in other districts.The area and connectivity of heat island patch increased and the fragmentation decreased.The preponderance of heat island in the thermal landscape pattern increased.Generally,the fragmentation of thermal landscape in Nanjing was gradually reduced,and the patch shape was becoming regular,while the agglomeration and connectivity was increased.During the rapid urbanization process,the heat island effect can be mitigated by rational planning of urban layout and appropriately increasing the area of urban green space.

    Growth Regularities of Three Dominant Natural Forest Types in the Changbai Mountains
    MENG Degan, YU Haoran, LIU Jian, GUO Jiachen, CAI Chao, LI Yang, ZHANG Xiao
    2019, 0(3):  147-150.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.024
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    Three dominant forest types include native oak,slow-growing broad leaved forest and broadleaved forest at medium growing rate were chosen from forest resources investigation classes of Hongshi Forestry Bureau.Four forest growth models up to the "S" growth curve were constructed,and the three dominant forest growth regularities were studied based on the forest resources investigation classes.The results were as follows:The test accuracy of forest growth models was greater than 98%,it presented better fitting effect.The Model(4)for native oak and the booad leaved forest at medium growing rate was best,and the Model(2)for the slow-growing broad leaved forest was best.The first one reached the maximum continuous annual growth and the average growth was the booad leaved forest at medium growing rate,followed by the slow-growing broad leaved forest,and the last one was the native oak,slow-growing broad leaved forest and the forest with the mature age was 50a,56a and 64a respectively.The growth periods of native oak,the slow-growing broad leaved forest and the booad leaved forest at medium growing rate were 27a-70a,24a-64a and 24a-54a respectively.

    Technical Application
    Quantitative Analysis on Landscape Patterns of Natural-artificial Complex Ecosystem Based on UAV Image
    SHAO Rui, TIAN Jianru, LI Weina, XU Wanying, ZUO Hua
    2019, 0(3):  151-156.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.025
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    In this study,high-resolution images were obtained based on UAV technology,and landscape types were extracted through artificial visual interpretation.Then,landscape patterns and the mosaic structure of the natural-artificial ecosystem were analyzed.The results showed that timber forests,tea plantations,residential areas and shrub forests were the dominant landscape units,followed by sparse woods,roads,industrial land,farmland and ditches.The mosaic structure and stability of different landscape units varied significantly.According to stability index,timber forests were the most stable landscape units in the study area,followed by sparse woods,reservoirs and ponds,fruit orchards,farmland,bare land,industrial land and other artificial landscapes.The stability of shrub forest,grassland,tea plantation,residential areas and roads were at a moderate level,whereas ditches,green land and bare rocks were relatively unstable.The results may provide scientific basis for the protection and management of nature reserves.

    Pruning Measures and Effect Analysis of Alternate Leaf and White Melaleuca Landscape Trees
    WANG Qingling
    2019, 0(3):  157-162.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.026
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    The changes and differences of volume characteristics,three-dimensional green quantity,clipping value,transmittance coefficient and perspective of Melaleuca alternifolia different fixed tree height and different pruning methods were analyzed.The results showed that the regular spherical landscape trees with aesthetic and ornamental value could be cultivated by fixing the trunk and pruning of Melaleuca alternifolia,with regular volume,elegant tree form,dense branches and leaves and concentrated distribution.Through comparative experiments,it is considered pruning once in August,September and October,plus K0S3D processing with one dormant pruning,and the K0S3C pruning once in April,May and June are more suitable and the operation effect is better.

    Landscape Quality Evaluation and Analysis of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Eastern Hunan
    ZHOU Yangchao, WANG Ruihui, ZHOU Pu, FU Weinan, ZHONG Cheng, ZHOU Yigang
    2019, 0(3):  163-168.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2019.03.027
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    In this paper,the forest landscape in broad-leaved forest in Dawei Mountain of Liuyang is taken as the object of study.The author takes 45 landscape photographs and adopts SBE method to evaluate the landscape quality.The landscape elements of broad-leaved forests are broken down into 13 elements.39 landscape elements are obtained together.The thesis takes out low-correlated scenic beauty elements and keeps 6 high-correlated elements through correlation analysis and regression analysis.The author lists the ranking of these 6 high-correlated elements according to contribution rate:average height(27.7%),mean DBH(20.2%),stand density(17.3%),colour richness index(16.4%),dead and fallen tree(9.4%),green rate(9.0%).A multi-factor regression equation for the evaluation was set up.The research result provides theoretical basis for quality estimation and management technology of broad-leaved forest landscape.