Table of Content

    28 August 2018, Volume 0 Issue 4
    Integrated Management and Administra
    Exploration on the Development of Shrub Forests in the Three-North Shelterbelt Project
    GAO Jianli, ZHANG Xiaogang
    2018, 0(4):  1-5.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.001
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    In order to achieve the multiple goals of protection,economic benefits,social benefits,and ecological benefits,the construction of the Three-North Shelterbelt System Project requires the diversity and stability of tree species and forest stands,and the rational layout in space.The development of the Three-North Shelterbelt System requires the scientific research of protective forest science and greater efforts are made to protect and repair natural ecosystems. In the protective forest construction area,we have vigorously carried out research on the natural management of protective forests,and accelerated the development of native tree species. In the arid and semi-arid areas,efforts are also made to promote the increase of native shrubs and implement combination of arbor,shrubs and grasses. This article elaborates the thinking on the construction of shrubbery from several aspects such as the development prospects,the current situation of development,the important function and the basic idea of shrubbery construction in the Three-North Project to promote the construction of shrubbery in the Three-North Project development and to make beneficial efforts to speed up the development of the shelterbelt system.

    Consideration about Strategy of National Parks’ Construction and Development
    WANG Daoyang, QIAO Yongqiang, ZHANG Bolin, ZHAO Siyuan, ZHANG Hongwei
    2018, 0(4):  6-9.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.002
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    Based on the characteristics of China’s current social and economic development,from the perspective of the development and utilization sequence of national parks,interest coordination among related stakeholders,financial support capacity and dynamic space management,this paper summarizes and considers the development path of national parks according to the new situation.

    Root Distribution of Young Trees of Typical Species in the Northern Region of Yanshan Mountains
    HOU Haichao, DING Li, XU Zhongqi, WANG Li, ZHAO Yu
    2018, 0(4):  10-16.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.003
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    In order to understand the spatial distribution of tree roots in the northern mountain region of Hebei Province,this study chose four tree species which grow well for seven years and have similar growth conditions:Pinus tabuliformis,Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica,Quercus mongolica, Larix principis-rupprechtii as the research object.Our objective was to study the spatial structure characteristics of four tree species roots (horizontal distribution,vertical distribution,root distribution of different diameter classes).The results show that the horizontal distribution and volume of roots of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica and Pinus tabuliformis are higher than those of the other two species,and the density of root length and root area are lower.Compared with other tree species,the root system of Larix principis-rupprechtii has a shallower soil layer and a smaller soil volume,but the root length density and root area density are higher than those of the other three species,and the root system of Larix principis-rupprechtii is more concentrated in soil.The horizontal distribution range of root system of each tree species is much larger than that of the aboveground,and the root width and crown width of Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica and Quercus mongolica are larger,reaching 3.82 and 3.09 respectively.What’s more,the biomass,root length and surface area of root system decreased with the increase of the distance from the trunk and the depth of root,but the opposite is true for specific root length.Because of the bare root seedling afforestation technology,the root width,biomass,specific root length and specific root area of Quercus mongolica are lower than those of other three tree species,so direct seeding afforestation or container seedling afforestation is recommended for Quercus mongolica. According to the distribution characteristics of root system in soil, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica are more adaptable to poor and arid soil,but the root distribution of Larix principis-rupprechtii is shallower and more concentrated,which should be influenced by soil drought stress.

    Variation Characteristics of NDVI in the National Key Ecological Engineering Areas in Ulanqab,Inner Mongolia
    MENG Pei, Liu Xueming
    2018, 0(4):  17-21.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.004
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    The key ecological projects in Ulanqab City include the natural conservation project in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River,the project of returning cropland to forest,the Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source control project,the project for protection of wild animals and plants and the nature reserve,the non-commercial forest project,and other forestry projects.In order to clarify the ecological benefits of the key forestry ecological projects in Ulanqab City,we have studied the changes in NDVI from 2005 to 2013.The results show that Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source control project in Ulanqab is the largest in area and most widely distributed.The average NDVI of Beijing-Tianjin sandstorm source control project,the project of returning cropland to forest,the non-commercial forest project and other forestry projects area increased by 0.017~0.020 per year,while in the area of the natural conservation project in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River,and the project for protection of wild animals and plants and nature reserve,the average NDVI increased by only 0.014 3 and 0.013 2 each year.From the administrative region aspect,the average NDVI of of Qahar Right Wing Front Banner,Jining,Qahar Right Wing Rear Banner,Huade County,Zhuozi County and Qahar Right Wing Middle Banner increased by 0.20% 0.25,while the increase of NDVI in Sizi Wang Banner,Xinghe County,Shangdu County,Liangcheng County,Fengzhen are only between 0.12 and 0.20.In a word,it is of great significance to strengthen the construction of the key ecological projects for the increase of vegetation in Ulanqab City.

    Scientific Research
    Research on Individual Tree Diameter Growth and Growth Rate Models in Qinghai
    MA KeXi, ZENG Weisheng, HOU Xiaowei
    2018, 0(4):  22-27.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.005
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    Based on the mensuration data of diameter at breast height (dbh)from about 40 thousand survival trees in 2013 Qinghai forest inventory of the 8th National Forest Inventory in China,the differences in external expression and similarities in inner essence between individual tree dbh growth,ratio,and rate models were analyzed,and growth rate models for 4 tree species were developed.It is showed that:1)individual tree dbh growth,ratio,and rate models are only different mathematical expressions reflecting tree growth information,even though the statistical indices of developed models exhibit great differences,when they are used to estimate dbh growth or dbh at the end of interval period,the differences are very few.2)When the sample trees are too many and distributed unevenly by diameter class,it is suggested to merge the data of trees with same diameter,and use the average values for modeling.However,the calculation of statistical indices of fitted models should be based on the data of all sample trees,not the merged data for modeling,otherwise the goodness-of-fit of models will be over-rated.3)The determination coefficients (R2)are more than 0.93,and mean prediction errors (MPE)are less than 0.3%,when dbh growth rate models for 4 tree species in Qinghai are used to estimate diameters at the end of interval period.The developed dbh growth rate models will provide quantitative basis for determining whether the dbh growth of trees is too large in field survey of Qinhai forest inventory of the 9th National Forest Inventory.

    Study on Species Diversity and Aboveground Biomass of Burned Phytocoenosium under Different Burntwood Management Modes —Taking Frigid-temperate Zone Larix gmelini as an Example
    WANG Zixuan, ZHOU Mei, ZHAO Pengwu, WANG Ding, YANG Lei, DING Zhaohua
    2018, 0(4):  28-33.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.006
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    In this study,Larix gmelinii forest burned areas were observed under different firewood management modes.The natural regeneration conditions,species composition,aboveground biomass,community biodiversity were researched in 2016.The results showed that the similarity of understory community under the burntwood selective cutting mode compared with unburned area showed the highest.The alpha diversity index of community at each layer under different burntwood management modes showed a ranking of herb layer > shrub layer.The simpson and shannon-wiener indexes in herb shrub layers were increased compared with unburned area,while the two indices are larger than the unburned area in the shrub layer.After thirteen years,the understory herb layer biomass was less than that of the control plot,while the shrub layer biomass increased to varying degrees compared to the control plot.

    Biomass Model Establishment and Allocation of Dominant Tree Species in Altai Mountains
    BAI Zhiqiang, LI Huan, WANG Wendong, LIU Duan, HAN Yanliang, LIU Hua
    2018, 0(4):  34-40.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.007
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    Accurate measurement of forest biomass is a basis of solving many forest or ecological problems,and also the premise of scientific management and utilization of forest ecosystems.In order to know characteristics of forest biomass in Altai Mountains,five dominant tree species as Larix sibirica,Pinus sibirica,Picea obovata,Abies sibirica and Betula pendula were selected,and the biomass of their trunks,branches,leaves,roots were measured,and biomass model established.The biomass of trunk,aboveground and underground biomass and total biomass of different stands were compared with the actual measured values.The results showed that W=aD bHc was a suitable model in calculating biomass of these 5 tree species.The sequence of biomass of different organs was trunks > roots > branches > leaves.L.sibirica forest has largest biomass,and plays an important role in the stability and development of forest ecosystem in Altai Mountains.

    Dynamic Characteristics of the Wetland of East Dongting Lake Nature Reserve from 2003 to 2016
    HUANG Yifan, WANG Jinsheng, WANG Kai, YANG Mei
    2018, 0(4):  41-46.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.008
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    Based on the product of MOD13Q1 of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer),this paper dealt with 322 available images from 2003 to 2016 by using decision tree classification method,and then got a time-based series of classified data about water,mud flats,grassland,and reed of wetland in East Dongting Lake.It analyzed the degree of accuracy of the classification results,and the annual and interannual variation trends of water and grassland of wetland,as well as the key driving factors,summarized that:(1)it is acceptable of the degree of accuracy which was calculated from the classification results by using the decision tree method on the series data of MODIS images from East Dongting Lake.(2)There is no significant interannual variety of the area of water and grassland of wetland from 2003 to 2016,when the construction and operation of the Three Gorges Dam was underway.(3)Area of water and grassland of wetland varies with the hydrological rhythm,and there is an extremely significant negative correlation between them.This paper proposed that,water level is the key factor of the ecosystem of East Dongting Lake,it is crucial to keep it in a reasonable range to maintain the health of ecosystem.

    Effects of Thinning on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Soil and Water Conservation of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation in Different Age Forests
    ZHOU Quan, WANG Ruihui, ZHONG Cheng, ZHOU Yangchao, FU Weinan
    2018, 0(4):  47-54.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.009
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    In this study,the middle aged plantation of 8-year-old Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Jing’an,Jiangxi Province and 12a C.lanceolata plantation in Huarong,Hunan Province were selected as the research objects.The physical and chemical properties and soil and water conservation of soil layer (0~15 cm,15~30 cm,thinned stand and unthinned stand)were analyzed and compared by the method of test and quantitative statistics.The result shows that thinning can reduce the soil bulk density,increase the porosity and total porosity of the soil.The increase of the porosity of the topsoil is bigger than that of the subsoil layer and the increase of the porosity of young forest is bigger than that of middle age forest.Thinning had no obvious effect on the pH value of C.lanceolata woodland,which was between 4.0 to 5.0.Thinning promoted the decomposition of organic matter in C.lanceolata woodland and the highest value was 16.83 g/kg in young group.The contribution in topsoil is higher than that in subsoil layer and the contribution in in the young forest is greater than that in middle age forest.The content of organic was higher than that of control plot and the difference was significant.The effect of thinning on soil nutrient elements is generally smaller,such as potassium and phosphorus.In the first year after thinning,the runoff of C.lanceolata woodland increased,but later,the runoff of C.lanceolata woodland showed a tendency to be lower than that of the same land.The effect of the middle age group was better than that of the young group.The effect of thinning on water purification rate,net mud rate and runoff coefficient is similar to that of surface runoff.The experimental results are beneficial to providing scientific basis for scientific and rational management of C.lanceolata plantations and have great guiding significance for production.

    Research on Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon and Nitrogen in Larch-Betula platylla Mixed Forests of Different Ages
    WANG Yunxia, MA Jun
    2018, 0(4):  55-60.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.010
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    To study soil microbial biomass in Larch-Betula platylla mixed forests of different ages,this paper analyzed the content and correlation of soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen,soil physicochemical properties and the ratio of soil microbial carbon and nitrogen,aiming to explore the characteristics of soil and soil microorganisms.The results showed that soil organic carbon,total nitrogen,soil microbial biomass and soil microbial entropy gradually decreased with soil depth.All of them represented a trend of decreasing firstly and then increasing as forest ages increased,and soil turned from “fungal type” to “bacteria type”.The ratio of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the age of 25 was extremely lower than both of other two ages.In forest floor,soil microbial entropy was greater with the forest age increase,with the higher activities of soil organic carbon,and the instability of soil carbon pool.The correlation analysis showed that there was a significant relationship among soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and soil organic carbon,total nitrogen,the value of pH,microbial entropy.Thus,soil microorganism presented the variation of the soil fertility as a sensitive indicator.

    Study on the Coupling Effect of Three Types of Forest Stands in the State Forest Farm of Daxiong Mountains
    ZHOU Wei, ZHANG Chao
    2018, 0(4):  61-68.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.011
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    Based on the forest growth and structural stability of the fir forest,the pine forest and the broad-leaved forest in the Daxiong mountains,the relative order parameters were used to construct a coupling model of interaction between two different forest stands to study the coupling effect among the three forest types.The results showed that:(1)The forest growth of the three forest types was slightly higher than that in the core area; (2)The average shrub layer of the fir forest and pine forest and the average herbaceous layer diversity and uniformity of the three forest types were opposite.(3)There were some coupling effects in the three forest types,And Cunninghamia lanceolata has a relatively large coupling effect on broad-leaved forests,and the coupling effects of these two coniferous forests are relatively small.It is suggested that the forest farm should properly replant the broad-leaved forest in the pure forest area of Chinese fir and pine forest to further optimize the spatial structure of the stand and enhance the ecological function of the forest.

    Research on the Evaluation Index System of Urban Leisure Greenland Adaptability for the Elderly
    YU Weiyi, HU Hong
    2018, 0(4):  69-75.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.012
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    From the perspective of the "four attributes" requirements of the elderly for urban leisure greenland,using the expert discrimination and analytic hierarchy process,this paper constructs an index system and a calculation model for scientifically evaluating urban leisure greenland adaptability for the elderly.In the practical application case,this paper presents and implements an efficient method of obtaining quantitative index data by using ArcGIS closest service facility analysis module.And the result shows that the "high around,low center" spatial difference of leisure greenland adaptability for the elderly in case city is obvious,the level of space accessibility and the level of health-entertainment are low,the level of environmental comfort is the highest but it is still in the medium level.The research methods and optimization suggestions can provide scientific reference and decision support for the case city and other aging cities to evaluate the adaptability for the elderly or make the aging modification.

    Inter-specific Association among Dominant Species in Xanthoceras sorbifolia Communities in Shanxi
    LIANG Linfeng, PEI Shulan, ZHANG Qindi, BI Runcheng, YAN Ming
    2018, 0(4):  76-83.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.013
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    To clarify the species composition and inter-specific association of Xanthoceras sorbifolia communities in Shanxi Province,we carried out a series of typical sampling investigations.Based on the 2×2 contingency table,we used variance ratio(VR),χ 2 test,Pearson’s correlation and Spearmen’s rank correlation to analyze the inter-specific association among the 231 species-pairs of the 22 dominant species in X.sorbifolia communities.Variance analysis showed that the whole of inter-specific associations of the 22 dominant species were significant negatively correlated,and the distribution of the species was relatively independent.The χ2 test,Pearson’s correlation and Spearmen’s rank correlation analysis among the 231 species-pairs of the 22 dominant species showed that 78,64 and 79 species-pairs were positively correlated,153,167 and 152 species-pairs were negatively correlated,and the positive and negative ratios were 0.51,0.38 and 0.52,respectively.The conclusion showed that there were no significant or only low correlations among the most of 231 species-pairs.According to the ecological characteristics of species,and by using the TWINSPAN and DCA methods,the 22 dominant species were divided into four ecological species groups.The results showed that the plants of X.sorbifolia communities are not very stable and in a stage of succession change.

    Exploration of Zhejiang and Fujian Hilly Urban Forest Constrution—Taking Shaowu City as an Example
    YUAN Yinan, PAN Minghui, WANG Yalei, HONG Xinchen, QUE Chenxi, WU Shasha, LAN Siren
    2018, 0(4):  84-89.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.014
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    Urbanization and urban sprawl lead to the fragmentation of urban forests and the change of its layout,which affects the function of urban forests as the ecological service of urban green infrastructure.On the basis of summing up the universal problems of Zhejiang and Fujian hilly cities,research was done on the connotation and regularity of the planning and construction of forest cities.Eventually,taking urban forest construction of Shaowu City as an example,the study put forward the ecological network structure “Two Rings,Two Bands,Multiple Corridors and Units ” of Shaowu city,analyzed the existing problems of urban forests and put forward some solutions.so as to maximize the service and ecological function of city forest,provide the regular reference for the city forest construction rules for the same type of Zhejiang and Fujian hilly cities.

    Study on Spatio-temporal Evolution of Vegetation Cover in the Nujiang River Basin of Yunnan Based on MODIS-NDVI Data
    LI Jie, ZHANG Jun, LIU Chenli, ZHANG Han
    2018, 0(4):  90-99.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.015
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    The spatio-temporal distribution,characteristics of variation and evolutionary trends of vegetation cover of Nujiang River basin in Yunnan Province during the period 2000—2015 were analyzed with wavelet analysis,Trend analysis,Cv methods and Hurst index based on MODIS-NDVI dynamic data.The results showed that:(1)From the temporal variation,the monthly variation of NDVI in the basin showed an overall growth trend,with an average monthly growth rate at 0.95%.For the annual variation aspect,the vegetation cover had an increasing trend at the rate of 0.21/(10 a),and there is a change period of about 14 years,which were obtained through the inspection by a significant level of 0.05.(2)For the spatial aspect,the high vegetation coverage area (0.6<NDVI<1)in the river basin accounts for 61.95%,which is better overall.Influenced by factors such as high-altitude terrain in the north and expansion of construction land in the south,the pattern of vegetation cover showed low-high-low distribution characteristics from north to south.In the last 16 years,the overall vegetation cover was in a low-level fluctuation,with low fluctuation region and lower fluctuation region accounting for 83.18%.Based on this fluctuation,areas showed a trend towards improvement accounting for about 59.49% of the total area,and 14.41% and 32.34% of the regions showed degenerate and unchanging trend.(3)For the spatial sustainability aspect,about 59.01% of the regional vegetation will continue the trend of the past,and 37.98% will develop in the reverse direction,Co-directional features are stronger than reverse features.In the future change of vegetation cover,regions with the invariable and benign development directions of vegetation,occupy 26.50% and 39.36%,and 3.14% of the regions,which will develop in a unfavorable direction,and be mainly distributed in the urban construction areas such as the center and periphery of the southern counties (cities)and the areas along the tributaries such as the Meng Baltic River,Kuke River and Mengtong River,which needs to be taken seriously.

    Estimation of Forest Volume in Karst Mountain Ecosystem with Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote Sensing Technology
    YANG Yongtian, YANG Guangbin, ZHAO Haibin
    2018, 0(4):  100-104.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.016
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    Karst mountain area is a special and fragile ecological landscape in the southwestern China.Forest optical remote sensing data in the regeion is not easy to obtain timely due to cloudy and rainy weather,affecting the investigation of forest resources in the ecosystem.Synthetic aperture radar (SAR)estimation technology is very suitable for quantitative evaluation of forest volume in cloudy mountain area,because radar has the ability to penetrate clouds onto the canopy,and its microwave can interact with the coronet and branches,resulting in all-weather observation of the forest.In this study,we selected Huishui county karst mountain area in Guizhou Province as the experimental area,and established a parameter model to estimate the forest reserves in the area by using SAR data and the ground data.We further analyzed the accuracy of the estimation from the model and expect that SAR remote sensing technology could facilitate more efficient management of the forest resources and the sustainable development of Guizhou Karst mountain ecosystem。

    Remote Sensing Inversion of Aboveground Biomass in Yancheng Coastal Wetlands
    HAN Shuang, ZHEN Yan, TAN Qingmei, LIU Yuqing, ZHANG Huabing
    2018, 0(4):  105-111.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.017
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    Taking the ETM + remote sensing image of the core area of Yancheng Nature Reserve and the field aboveground biomass measured in the same period as the data source,we built BP artificial neural network model and simulated biomass distribution of the study area.The conclusions of the study are as follows:The BP neural network model was used to retrieve the biomass of wet weight and dry weight,their accuracy arrived at 70% and 74% respectively.The total biomass of dry weight is 9.370×107kg and the total biomass of wet weight is 4.996×108kg.In the spatial variation,it mainly presents obvious difference from the land to the sea and slow change along the coast.The biomass of Spartina,reed and Suaeda range from high to low.The dry weight of Suaeda salsa’s biomass mainly concentrated in 1.5kg/m2,while its biomass of wet weight is concentrated in 0~6kg/m2; The dry weight of Spartina alterniflora’s biomass mainly concentrated in 1~2kg/m2,while its biomass of wet weight is over 8kg/m2; The dry weight of Reed’s biomass mainly concentrated in 0~2kg/m2,while its biomass of wet weight is concentrated in 2~6kg/m2.The biomass is positively correlated with plant height and coverage,and the correlation between dry weight and the two was stronger.The biomass was positively correlated with ecological niche and soil environmental factors,especially with soil nutrients.

    Technical Application
    Design and Implementation of the Forest Resources Management System of the Inner Mongolia Daxing’anling Forest Region
    REN Yi, XU Dengping, ZHAO Binzhu, HUANG Guosheng, Yan Zhe
    2018, 0(4):  112-119.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.018
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    In this paper,the needs of information management in forest resources were analyzed,by taking the example of major state-owned forest areas in the Inner Mongolia Daxing’anling.A forest resources management system about major state-owned forest areas was established through applying SOA,3S and other comprehensive technologies.With this new system,some important functions about forest resources data were designed and implemented,including field acquisition,data quality inspection,data update,data query and browsing,statistical analysis and thematic map making.In addition,some advanced technologies were adopted,such as plug-in technology framework,collaborative update of inside and outside integration,data query based on spatial index,etc.,which provided technical support to promote the level of resources management in major state-owned forest areas.

    Experiment and Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Oblique Photography in Constructing 3D Model of Forest Scenic Spots
    YANG Fan
    2018, 0(4):  120-124.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.019
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    The photogrammetric technology of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)has been widely used in the field of three-dimensional modeling as a new technique method.This paper analyzes the basic principle and system composition of the tilt photogrammetric technology and gives the technical flow and scheme of the real three-dimensional model based on the unmanned aerial vehicle tilt design technology.Taking the Yuntai Mountain Hongshi gorge Forest Scenic Area in Jiaozuo,Henan as the experimental area,the three-dimensional model of the area is made according to the technical process and scheme given in this paper.The model truly expresses the natural features of the scenic spots and the characteristics of the humanities,and can reach the feeling of the real scene by browsing the model,the real three-dimensional model can be used as the basic data and basis for the planning of tourist attractions,the simulation of various natural phenomena in scenic spots,and the development of the intelligent management system.It has very great market value and application prospect.

    Design and Application of Forest Detecting Based on Airborne Large-Footprint LiDAR System
    WU Fayun, GAO Xianlian, PAN Chao, SUN Zhongqiu, WANG Lidong, LIU Yingchun
    2018, 0(4):  125-132.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.020
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    LiDAR(Light Laser Detection and Ranging)are drawing more attention with its unique penetration for the detection of large areas of forest.Based on the large-footprint LiDAR system designed by Academy of Forest Inventory and Planning of State Forestry Administration and Beijing Telemetry Technology Research Institute,this paper introduced the working principle of the system,module composition,equipment installation,parameter design,data processing,etc.,and one flight test data of the system was analyzed.The results show that the waveform data obtained through this system can describe buildings,farmland and forest accurately.In addition,compared with the data collected by the small-footprint LiDAR,the overall average accuracy is 89.24%,which proves this system has a high precision in the description of maximum crown height.The result of paired sample T test with no significance of difference also proves the data obtained through the system has a unique performance of estimation in maximum canopy height of the forest.Therefore,the large-footprint LiDAR system can be used to estimate large areas of forest for maximum height,average height,crown density,biomass,volume,leaf area index and a series of forest parameters in the detection of forest in the future.

    Research and Exploration on Integration of Standing Tree Volume Measurement
    JIANG Junzhiwei, FENG Zhongke, YUE Depeng, WANG Yong, WANG Dejin, GAO Linqin, WU Pengfei, FENG Jian
    2018, 0(4):  133-140.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.021
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    This research develops an integration of field and in-door-work system on volume measurement based on the theories of forest mensuration,image processing and sensor technology.The system consists of a portable super station and self-developed and post-processing platform.The azimuth angles,dip angles and standing tree images are acquired during measurement.Those data can be processed simultaneously to the post-processing platform to generate standing tree volume,and the results are automatically saved,which achieves the vision of integration of internal and external work.The measurement accuracy of the system was verified.The results show that the average accuracy of this system is 94.4%,and it can solve the problem of investigation difficulty in some forest areas.This system is convenient and portable,which is a beneficial attempt to improve the precision and intelligence of volume measurement.

    Construction of Forest Landscape around Beijing New Airport
    WANG Jian
    2018, 0(4):  141-145.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.022
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    As a new source of power for national development,in view of the development requirements for the construction of the forest landscape around airport,this article is based on the theory of civil aviation,human visual characteristics and related research,delineating visually sensitive areas.According to the results of the comparative analysis of the spatial distribution characteristics and scale of the visually sensitive areas of the International Airport and Beijing New Airport,the author puts forward the relevant requirements for planning,provides theoretical support for the landscape construction of Beijing New Airport.

    Research Bullletin
    Study on Carbon Storage and Carbon Density of Forest Vegetation in Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
    LU Qiuling, LI Yuanhui
    2018, 0(4):  146-153.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.023
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    Carbon storage and carbon density of forest vegetation in Sanjingyuan Nature Reserve were estimated by both the continuous biomass expansion factor method and the average biomass method according to the data from public welfare forest reproduction survey.The results showed that,1)The total carbon storage and the average carbon density of forest vegetation was respectively 26.87Tg and 22.22 t/hm2; 2)Carbon storage was highest in shrub layer,which accounted for 66.06% of vegetation layer in this area;3)Carbon storage was mainly distributed in the Zhongtie-jungong,Baizha,Makehe,Tongtianhe and Jiangxi areas,which accounted for 68.81% of the total carbon storage;4)Carbon storage was distributed mostly in the natural forest,which took the percentage of 98.49% in stands layer and 99.71% in shrub layer;5)The carbon storage of the standing forests was relatively concentrated in the near-mature forest,mature forest and over-mature forest,making up 57.04% of the total;6)Carbon storage was greatly located in Sabina spp.,Picea spp.,Rhododendron spp.,Salix oritrepha; which separately occupied 94.57% and 76.50% in the tree layer and the shrub layer.

    New Development in Other Countries
    The Management System and Experiences of Nature Reserves in Russia
    TANG Xiaoping, CHEN Junzhi, HAN Aihui, WANG Fengkun
    2018, 0(4):  154-159.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2018.04.024
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    This article briefly introduced the development and management system of Russian nature reserves. The Russian nature reserves had adopted a unified and graded management system,and established a classification management system according to characteristics of different regional and different management objectives. Using the successful experiences of the Russian nature reserve management system as reference,this paper mentioned some suggestions on the construction of a new nature reserve system in China in the aspects of the various functions of nature reserves,the establishment of a unified and graded management system,the improvement of the laws and regulations,the adoption of classified regional management system,and the establishment of the fund guarantee mechanism.