Table of Content

    28 June 2020, Volume 0 Issue 3
    Contents and Cover
    2020, 0(3):  0-0. 
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    Integrated Management and Administration
    Exploration and Practice of Pledge Loan Mechanism for Expected Earnings Rights of Public Welfare Forests from the Perspective of Ecological Poverty Alleviation——Based on the Case Study of Hechi
    QI Lian, YE Jiayi, WEI Xingli, QIN Yichao, QIN Yuanfang
    2020, 0(3):  1-5.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.001
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    China's public welfare forests are rich in resources,especially in the poor areas where the proportion of public welfare forests is high with large,reserves and huge economic potential.The public welfare forests should play a more active role in the overall ecological poverty alleviation.In order to explore the effective means of public welfare forest financing,Hechi City actively innovated the practice,gradually explored and developed the pledge loan mechanism for expected earning rights of public welfare forests with local characteristics.The local practice experience of Hechi City has a certain reference significance for the formulation of relevant policies and local practice work.Building and improving the loan mechanism for the pledge of the expected revenue rights of the public welfare forest needs to be promoted from five aspects:comprehensively deepening forestry finance reform,innovating forestry management system,deepening forestry investment mechanism reform,deepening forest rights transfer mechanism reform,regulating forest rights transfer market.

    Development and Implementation of Innovative Forest Management Plan
    LIU Jing
    2020, 0(3):  6-10.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.002
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    Innovative Forest Management Plan(FMP),based on the concept of Forest Landscape Restoration,aims at improving ecosystem services.Innovative FMP is put forward by Sino-GEF State-owned forest farm project,which not only complies with legal requirements on forest management units regulations in China's Forest Law,but also echoes to the forest development goal of building a healthy,stable,high-quality and efficient forest ecosystem in China.In order to develop and implement innovative FMP,it is essential to understand the meaning of forest landscape restoration and ecosystem service,to establish management objectives according to local conditions,to organize various activities scientifically,and to optimize management measures by monitoring outcomes of management.

    Thinking on the Establishing Plan-Making System of Forest Management Planning and Forest Management Plan
    HU Zhongyang, LIU Ruizhi, LIU Ping
    2020, 0(3):  11-14.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.003
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    Forest management is the critical approach of precise improvement of forest quality.The development of forest management planning and forest management plan is the specific action of precise improvement of forest quality.The scientific and reasonable development of planning and plan is of great significance to the precise improvement of forest quality.It is explained that the connotation,function,connection and distinction,as well as problems when developing the planning and plan,pointing out that froest management type and silvicultural system are the key points of the planning and plan development.The provincial and county-level forest management planning should identify scientific and reasonable forest management type and corresponding silvicultural system.The appropriate forest management type and silvicultural system of the forest management plan should be based on the county-level forest management planning.The establishment of plan-making system of forest management planning and forest management plan contributes to the achivevements of the comprehensive,continuous and precise improvement of forest quality.

    The Governance Dilemma and its Solutions of Illegal Wildlife Trade on the Perspective of a Community of Life
    CHEN Jimin
    2020, 0(3):  15-21.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.004
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    Human and nature form a community of life.The illegal wildlife trade,the third largest crime in the world,has affected the public hygiene security and human health security,which needs severe punishment urgently.The paper systematically analyses the governance dilemma on the level of ideology,legislation,law enforcement,supervision,market,etc.In order to further clarify the governance path of illegal wildlife trade,to protect the wildlife resources,to enhance the harmonious coexistence between human and nature and to fulfil the concept of a community of life,the paper also puts forward the possible solutions that we should strengthen the publicity and guidance of the concept of harmonious coexistence,improve the wildlife conservation legal system and the supervision system,strengthen the law enforcement capacity building,and severely punish the wildlife trades.

    Development of Natural Resources Balance Sheet Accounting System—Taking Forest Resources as an Example
    HU Yaosheng, YU Liyao, WU Jianwei
    2020, 0(3):  22-25.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.005
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    The scientific design of natural resource balance sheet plays a key role in establishing an ecological civilization performance appraisal system,and it is an important measure to strengthen the natural resource management.Based on the studies of current natural resource balance sheet,using theoretical methods and techniques of accounting as reference,this paper proposes the theoretical framework of natural resource asset accounting.It takes forest resources as an example to develop a forest resources balance sheet accounting system,and puts forward the accounting process from the forest resources survey data to the forest resources balance sheet accounting,which aims to provide a basis for the compilation of natural resources balance sheet.

    Discussion on the Greenway Planning Strategy of Mountainous City
    JIANG Songlin, LI Xi, FU Erkang
    2020, 0(3):  26-31.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.006
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    As the geomorphological features,ecological pattern and traffic structure of mountainous cities are quite different from those in plain cities,the different requirements are put forward for the theory and method of greenway planning.Taking the greenway planning of Luzhou central district as an example,the greenway planning strategy of mountainous city was discussed based on the landscape spatial pattern,slow traffic demand and humanistic landscape characteristics.The greenway construction of Luzhou central district is divided into city level,district level and community level,highlighting the landscape character and optimizing the ecological pattern.Through optimizing of fast and slow traffic connection as well as improving the public bicycle operation system,people are guided by green travel concept.By connecting natural and humanistic landscapes,the regional historical and cultural characteristics could be advertised.Using network and information technology,the intelligent management,service and experience of greenway could be achieved,which construct the new ecology of wisdom city.The study is expected to provide useful reference for the theoretical research and practice of greenway planning for mountainous cities.

    Analysis of the Basic Connotation and Path Exploration of "New Forestry Science" Development
    LI Yunqing, ZHANG Lixia
    2020, 0(3):  32-36.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.007
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    The development of "New Forestry Science" is not only the inherent need of the current economic and social development as well as the higher education and forestry and grassland education in China,but also the inevitable requirement of the construction of ecological civilization and beautiful China."New Forestry Science" has the basic characteristics of the times,modernity,science and technology,inheritance,innovation,integration and openness.The development of "New Forestry Science" needs to further strengthen the overall planning and top-level design,pay attention to the integration of multi-disciplinary,multi-professional,multi-field and the joint participation of various forces.At the same time,we need to further strengthen the teacher resources and curriculum,so as to build a multi-level,multi-type and diversified talent training system for forestry and grassland higher education with Chinese characteristics.

    Scientific Research
    Building and Evaluation of Comprehensive Benefit Model of Quanzhou Bay Estuarine Wetland Nature Reserve
    YE Wei
    2020, 0(3):  37-43.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.008
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    The dynamic assessment and analysis of the comprehensive benefits of nature reserves are of great value to the efficiency enhancement,management refinement and history tracing.Taking Quanzhou Bay as an example,through factor selection,index calculation and weight analysis,and based on remote sensing and geographic information technology,a linear model of comprehensive benefits of Quanzhou Bay is constructed,and the comprehensive benefits of 2014,2016 and 2019 are calculated.The results of spatial statistical analysis of comprehensive benefits data show that the comprehensive benefits of Quanzhou Bay in 2014-2019 increased by 26%,among which the comprehensive benefits increased more rapidly in 2016-2019;the hot spots of benefit in Quanzhou Bay nature reserve are mainly mangrove and Alternanthera,and the cold spots of benefit are mainly water areas and other types.

    Study on Forest Landscape Fragmentation of Puzhehei Provincial Nature Reserve based on MSPA
    HUANG Xiaoyuan, YE Yuanhui, ZHANG Zhuoya, WANG hongsong, CHEN Yalin
    2020, 0(3):  44-51.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.009
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    Based on the forest distribution map of 10 m spatial resolution in 2006 and 2016,the forest in Puzhehei Provincial Nature Reserve of Qiubei,Yunan Province,was divided into 7 types of fragmentation.By using morphological spatial pattern analysis method,the index of forest fragmentation was established to explore the characteristics and changes of forest fragmentation in the reserve.The results show that:from 2006 to 2016,the forest landscape of the reserve has changed greatly and the proportion of various patches in the forest area has increased.The core and edge patches are the main compositions of the forest,while the proportion of island,perforation,connecting bridge,ring and branch patches is relatively small.In the reserve,the forest integrity is enhanced,the edge effect is reduced,the connectivity and the spread are enhanced.The characteristics of forest fragmentation in each functional area are different.The degree of fragmentation in the core area is low,while in the experimental area is just the opposite.The forest in buffer area has better connectivity and spread.Evergreen broad-leaved forest landscape is the most fragmented vegetation type,with many islands and large edge effect,which should be protected and restored.

    Comparative Analysis of Forest Resources Dynamic Monitoring Data and Land Survey Data in Hangzhou
    LIU Cheng, ZHENG Yunfeng, YANG Jinxin, LU Yagang
    2020, 0(3):  52-57.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.010
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    This paper assessed the differentiation degree and distribution of forest resources between forest resources dynamic monitoring data(FRD) and national land survey data(LSD) in Hangzhou,and then analyzed the causes of data difference.The results showed that the overall consistency between FRD and LSD was relatively high,reaching an average of 88.06%.Difference map showed that most of the differences were collective forests,plantations,commercial forests and forests with low protection level.However,the total difference area of national forests,natural forests and public welfare forests were still quite large,which needed close attention by the forestry authority.

    Analysis of the Deference Between the UAV Dense Matching Point Cloud and Airborne LiDAR Point Cloud
    LIN Xin, PANG Yong, LI Chungan
    2020, 0(3):  58-62.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.011
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    In order to analyze the similarities and differences between the UAV dense matching point cloud and the airborne LiDAR point cloud,the spatial distribution of two kinds of point clouds for dense forest(canopy density of 0.85),sparse forest(canopy density of 0.55) and undeveloped forest was visually analyzed.The densely matched point cloud was normalize through two types of DEM(UAV_DEM and LiDAR_DEM) produced by UAV and LiDAR point clouds respectively.Then,the statistical characteristics of the obtained two sets of normalized densely matched point cloud data and LiDAR point cloud data were compared using the paired sample t-test analysis.The results show that:1) In dense forests,densely matched point cloud has great limitations to obtain canopy internal and ground information.After normalization using LiDAR_DEM,the densely matched point cloud and the laser point cloud were examined with significant differences in the middle and lower quantile heights and all density characteristics(α=0.05),while no significant differences found in the middle and upper quantile heights;2) In sparse forest and undeveloped forest,except for the lower quantile height,the remaining statistical parameters of height and density are not significantly different between the densely matched point cloud and the laser point cloud.However,the densely matched point cloud is superior to the airborne LiDAR point cloud regarding the ability of describing the three-dimensional structure of young trees.In conclusion,the UVA dense matching point cloud can be directly used to estimate the forest parameters of sparse forest and undeveloped forest in the forest survey and monitoring.With the assistance of high-precision DEM,some parameters of dense forest(e.g.,crown layer height) can be further estimated through the UVA dense matching point cloud.

    Investigation and Analysis of Ungulate Population Size in Dulan,Qinghai Province
    LU Linlin, WANG Wei, LI Ye, CAI Ping, SHI Yonghong, YONG Jun, YIN Feng
    2020, 0(3):  63-66.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.012
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    We conducted a survey of population size of Pseudois nayaur,Gervus albirostris,Cervus elaphus,Argali sheep and Procapra picticaudata during July 2017 to April 2018 in Qinghai Dulan County Gouli Township and Balong Township.The results showed:in the region,the number of Pseudois nayaur increased by about 30%,Gervus albirostris increased by 900%,Cervus elaphus increased by about 200%,and Argali sheep decreased by more than 80%.The result will provide reference value for the data collation and analysis of large ungulate population at county level and the development of wildlife management plan.

    Diversity Analysis of Woody Plants in Tiecha Mountain Nature Reserve
    LIU Dan, LI Wenqing, FAN Xiaoliang, HAN Xiaodi
    2020, 0(3):  67-71.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.013
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    An investigation using quadrat method is made on Rongcheng Tiecha Mountain Nature Reserve in Weihai,Shandong Province.The composition characteristics and xylophyte diversity of plant communities at different altitudes,slope directions and slope positions are compared.The results showed that the species are abundant in Tiecha Mountain,the species diversity varies greatly at different altitudes,and also varies in different slope directions.The species and quantity of plants varies with different altitude,slope position and slope direction.The distribution of same plant is different in different altitude,slope position and slope direction

    Characteristics Analysis of Typical Natural Forest of Sloanea sinensis Based on Stratification
    LI Zhiming
    2020, 0(3):  72-77.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.014
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    The tree stratum of typical natural forest of Sloanea sinensis is stratified obviously to 3 strata(stratum I,stratum II and substratum III).The height of the Maximum Light Receiving Plane(MLRP) is 16.5 m.The forest is composed by 50 tree species and the important value of Sloanea sinensis is 16.07%. There are 11,15 and 38 tree species in stratum I,stratum II and stratum III respectively.There are many rare or high-value timber species,such as Schima superba,Cinnamomum chekiangense,Tsoongiodendron odorum,Parakmeria lotungensis,Nyssa sinensis,Michelia fujianensis,Prunus spinulosa,Michelia maudiae and Engelhardtia fenzlii.Its species richness(R),Shannon-Wiener index(SW),evenness(E) and ecological dominance(ED) in tree stratum are 50,4.56,0.81 and 0.09 respectively,which in stratum I are 11,3.03,0.88 and 0.16 respectively,in stratum II are 15,3.23,0.83 and 0.17 respectively,in stratum III are 38,4.30,0.82 and 0.09 respectively.Its average stand DBH,height,density and growing stock in tree stratum are 26.1 cm,28.06 m,912 N/hm2 and 590.58 m3/hm2respectively.Its percentage of stand density in stratum I,stratum II and stratum III are 10.1% 20.6% and 69.3% respectively.Its percentage of growing stock in stratum I,stratum II and stratum III are 75.8%,18.1% and 6.1% respectively.

    Site Classification of Cupressus gigantean Population in the Middle Reaches of Yarlung Zangbo River
    LI Yingping, ZHAO Yuwen, YAO qi, YANG Xiaolin, ZHAO Kentian
    2020, 0(3):  78-84.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.015
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    In order to explore the impact of micro environment on the growth of Cupressus gigantean,this paper takes the Cupressus gigantean population of Nang County in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo as the research object,a method combining qualitative experience summary and quantitative mathematical analysis was used. Based on the principal component analysis of "Forest site classification in China","Land forms of Tibet","Natural geography of Tibet" and each site factor,the following five site types are classified:site type group of exposed rock,site type group of piedmont slope,terrace site type group,river beach(flood plain)site type group,waterfront site type group and 15 site types. Combining the site types of Cupressus gigantean population in Nang County in the middle reaches of Yarlung Zangbo River with the classification of China's forest sites,the site types of Cupressus gigantean population in Nang County were obtained. It can provide a reference for further exploring the influence of site types on the growth of Cupressus gigantean and for the method of site type division in Tibet River Valley.

    Eco-environment Quality Evaluation of Qinling National Arboretum
    JIANG Shirong, TONG Yawen, LIU Yaohua, ZHANG Qingfeng, HONG Bo
    2020, 0(3):  85-88.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.016
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    In order to evaluate the status of eco-environment quality and the distribution characteristics of Qinling National Arboretum,methods of Ecological Index(EI) and Remote Sensing based Ecological Index(RSEI) were adopted.The results showed that the EI of Qinling National Arboretum is 72.80,which means that the overall ecological environment status is good and the ecological function is relatively stable.In the northern part of arboretum,the nearby of S107 road,the hillsite of Guangtou Mountain and the gulch of Tianyu River,the eco-environment quality is relatively poor;while which of the Shouyang Mountain and the Yanjia Mountain was good.The output of the EI method can be used for an overall evaluation about the eco-environment quality,while the RSEI method can be used to evaluate the spatial distribution of eco-environmental quality.The combination of these two methods provide a good reference for the quantitative evaluation of the eco-environment quality.

    Research on the Identification and Optimization Strategy of Ecological Security Pattern in Shandong Province
    WU Ke, Li Hanbing, HAN Bo
    2020, 0(3):  89-94.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.017
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    According to the present situation of the geographical environment and ecological resources in Shandong Province,the relevant data are collected and collated,and the important ecological sources,main ecological corridors and ecological nodes that constitute the ecological security framework of Shandong province are identified through the Arcgis platform fusion analysis,the security,stability and connectivity of ecological security pattern are evaluated. The results show that the ecological resources in Shandong province account for 32.25% of the total land area of the province,including 59 patches of the ecological source map,and are mainly distributed in the mountainous areas of south-central Shandong,Jiaodong Peninsula,Nansi Lake and the Yellow River Delta.The total length of ecological corridor is 10.2 thousand km.There are 350 ecological nodes,which are mainly distributed in the Lubei plain,the east coast of Jiaodong Peninsula and the southwest part of Shandong Province. Taking small watershed as evaluation unit,this paper analyzes its optimization and promotion of regional layout,and discusses the countermeasures of ecological protection and restoration of classified and divided areas,so as to provide reference for the compilation of provincial territorial spatial planning and the ecological protection and restoration of Shandong Province.

    Research on Beijing Olympic Forest Park Ecotourism Satisfaction Evaluation and Promotion Strategy
    JIA Tianyu, LIU Xiaobing, YU Jiayue, LI Shiyu
    2020, 0(3):  95-100.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.018
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    Using the Likert scale method to design questionnaires,through field surveys on the satisfaction of the forest ecotourism in Beijing Olympic Forest Park,combined with the IPA analysis method to quantitatively calculate the survey data,the IPA index at various levels is obtained.The results showed that:5 items were very satisfactory,6 items were satisfactory,7 items were average,and 3 items were not satisfactory;9 indicators such as forest coverage rate were in the superior maintenance area,3 indicators such as the resting place were in the active improvement area,6 indicators such as the tourist service center are in the area of continuous improvement,4 indicators,such as the richness of the human landscape,are in the appropriate transition area.Finally,combined with the IPA analysis results,a satisfaction improvement strategy is proposed,and an ecological tourism path is built for the Olympic Forest Park.

    Effect of Seedling Types and Spacing on Growth and Yield of RauwoIfia yunnanensis
    DAO Baohui, ZHANG Chen, GENYU Xianbao, SI Zhixing, ZOU Li
    2020, 0(3):  101-104.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.019
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    Planting trials of seedling types and spacing were conducted for RauwoIfia yunnanensis,and effects of seedling types and spacing on its growth and yield were investigated.The results showed that cuttings should be applied in the practice rather than seedling of R.yunnanensis due to their easy cultivation and few individual variation,although significant difference in growth and yield was absent between them in the present study.There were significant differences in growth and yield of R.yunnanensis among six spacing treatments,and the yield of stems and leaves as well as roots performed the best for spacing 0.4 m×1.0 m.

    Technical Application
    A Method of Estimating Forest Stock Volume Parameters from Airborne LiDAR Data
    XU Can, JIANG Tengda
    2020, 0(3):  105-110.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.020
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    Aiming at the problem of single tree extraction in forestry inventory,a method based on Airborne LiDAR point cloud data is proposed,which uses local maximum value and noise elimination to obtain crown vertex,and uses watershed segmentation method to extract single tree,estimating DBH and forest volume based on tree height and forest volume model.Compared with the traditional artificial field survey method,it has higher time efficiency and reduces a lot of labor cost.

    Estimation of Forest Canopy Height Based on Large-Footprint Airborne LiDAR Data
    SUN Zhongqiu, WU Fayun, GAO Xianlian, GAO Jinping, HU Yang
    2020, 0(3):  111-117.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.021
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    Using the echo waveform data collected by the large-footprint airborne forestry LiDAR designed by Satellite Forestry Application Center of National Forestry and Grassland Administration,a series of parameters like background noise,signal starting position,ground echo position were processed based on Matlab 2014a,so as to estimate forest canopy height.Ten echo waveforms near the sample plot were selected to estimate the height of forest canopy.And the accuracy of the forest canopy height estimated by echo waveform data was verified.The results showed that echo waveform collected by airborne large-footprint LiDAR had different degrees of ability to estimate seven kinds of forest canopy height.Estimation of the weighted basal area average height and the average wood of dominant tree's average height was the best,with the relative errors of 4.36% and 8.29%,RMSE of 1.40 m and 1.55 m.For the average height H and the average height D of the dominant tree,the estimation ability was the worst,with the relative errors of 19.81% and 22.00%,and RMSE of 2.99 m and 3.34 m.

    Analysis and Prospect on the Application of Tree Species Classification Based on Forestry Remote Sensing
    MA Hongwei, LIU Hai, YAO Shunbin, ZHOU Wei
    2020, 0(3):  118-121.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.022
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    Tree species classification is an important application area in forestry remote sensing.It has widely used application scenarios in the areas of sustainable forestry management,biodiversity research,and ecological environmental protection.Based on the research results in this field after 2000 and the application practice in the forestry production process in recent years,the application of multi-source data in tree classification is summarized.From the perspectives of workflow and corresponding algorithms,the issue is analyzed and compared based on image classification and mathematical statistics.Facing the problems and challenges encountered in the application of forestry remote sensing in the classification of tree species,different working ideas based on semantic segmentation and instance segmentation were proposed,and the future development of multi-source remote sensing data fusion acquisition and hardware processing equipment was prospected.

    Foreign Experience
    Innovative Trend and Supportive Mechanism of Forest Research and Development in US Forest Service
    CHEN Jie, WANG Dengju, LIAO Wang, WANG Lu
    2020, 0(3):  122-126.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.023
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    This paper collects and classifies the highlights of research in 2015-2018 listed by the US Forest Service.Based on this,the priority research field and research development trend is analyzed and summarized,and the supportive mechanism for the innovative forestry research is concluded.Then suggestions are put forward for the innovative development of forestry research and development as well as the technology transfer in China,with the aim at providing the references for formulating the forestry research and development plan.

    References and Inspiration from the Development of United States Grassland Legal System
    XU Baizhi, YANG Zhi, SHI Junhua, WANG Qiuju, ZHANG Yu
    2020, 0(3):  127-132.  doi:10.13466/j.cnki.lyzygl.2020.03.024
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    The paper introduces and analyzes the grassland management system,legal system,specific protection measures and management methods in the United States.Due to the suitable protection policies,clear ownership,precise grassland monitoring work,and diversified management and utilization methods,the U.S.system achieves the sustainable balance between protection and utilization of the grassland.Combined with China's current grassland management policy,this paper puts forward some reasonable suggestions on improving grassland laws,regulations and protection management,and hopes to provide some reference and inspiration for strengthening grassland protection and sustainable development in China.