Table of Content

    28 August 2013, Volume 0 Issue 4
    Integrated Management and Administration
    Annual Forest Inventory:US Experience and Lessons
    YE Ronghua
    2013, 0(4):  1-4. 
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    This paper describes the background of the US annual forest inventory and different inventory design alternatives.A design is suggested for setting up Chinese annual forest inventory system.The feasibility of this design is analyzed and related issues are discussed.
    Thinking on the Development of Forest Resources Management under New Circumstances
    CHEN Mouxun
    2013, 0(4):  5-10. 
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    Under the new circumstances of sustainable development,eco-civilization construction and new 4 modernizations,the development directions,improvement methods and key points are discussed.
    The Problem and Countermeasures of Forest Park Tourism Development
    QIAO Yongqiang
    2013, 0(4):  11-15. 
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    Based on the discussion of the problems of China’s forest park tourism,the paper points out that there are some problems such as inconsistency of management aims of forest park tourism from different management levels,the conflict between public interests and commercial interests,the confusion of improving tourism level and enlarging tourism scale,as well as different interest aims between management and investor of forest park. Through the analysis of the causes of these problems,the paper gives some advices for problem’s solution.
    Investigation on Livelihoods and Utilization of Land of Farmers Converting Cropland in the Poverty-stricken Area around Beijing
    ZHANG Pengtao, GE Zhichao, ZHANG Guijun, YANG Hao
    2013, 0(4):  16-22. 
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    The implementation of the first phase cropland conversion project in the poverty-stricken area around Beijing has caused the changes of land use,social and economic development and ecological environment in this region significantly. Meanwhile,the people’s livelihood issues in the region has also attracted great attention. In 2013,cropland conversion has entered the second phase. In order to learn about the current situation of the farmers’ livelihoods and the utilization of land in the poverty-stricken area around the capital,a large number of questionnaires and interviews were carried out in the poverty-stricken area and analysis made on farmers livelihoods after their cropland’s conversion and land-use behaviors so as to provide a reference for the sustainable development of local social economy and ecology. The results show that intensive and extensive land uses exsit in farmers’ land utilization, agricultural internal structure has changed from traditional planting industry to comprehensive developmemt consisting of agriculture,forestry,fishery and animal husbandry; the employment of rural labor force has been converted from the first industry to the second and third industries; farmers’ income has been changed from farming oriented to non-farming oriented and income of farm household per year has increased 3.36 times. However,farmers’ livelihood diversification is still in its infancy and there exsit many problems. It still needs the government to pay attention to the public infrastructure of cropland conversion area,improvement of the level of education,strengthening of vocational training,widening the channel of information and promoting credit and cooperation management to realize the sustainable development of farmers’ livelihoods.
    Study on Forest Management and Protection System of Heilongjiang Province Based on the Perspective of Forest Farmer Households
    LIU Qing, DONG Huanwei, ZHANG Jinjin, WAN Zhifang
    2013, 0(4):  23-26. 
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    From the perspective of forest farmer households,this paper ascertain the status of implementation of responsibility system of forest resources management and protection based on a large number of questionnaires.Some problems are found,which includes that the level of the forest farmers’ under standing of this system is low,they have many difficulties in developing undergrowth resource and lack the enthusiasm of protecting forest.This paper also proposes some operational proposals for strengthening propaganda,increasing government support and implementing relevant management and protection strategies.
    Scientific Research
    Study on Structure of Casuarina equisetifolia Plantation Stands in the Nandu River Basin
    WU Jiang, LI Xiangyang, SHE Jiyun, LU Yu, MENG Wei, WEI Fu
    2013, 0(4):  27-32. 
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    This paper analyzed the characteristics and rules of the Casuarina equisetifolia plantation stands structure in the Nandu River basin in Hainan Province,used Weibull distribution and normal distribution in diameter and height fitting and was combined with χ2 fitting results for examination. The results showed that the average DBH of Casuarina equisetifolia plantation stands was 11.6cm,the span of diameter class ranked 3.4 to 21.3cm,the average of tree height was 13.6 and ranked 5.2~23.5m;fitting results of two distribution functions showed high fitting accuracy,and the fitting precision of the Weibull distribution were slightly better than the Normal distribution; undergrowth vegetation composition in Casuarina equisetifolia plantation stands was simple with low biodiversity,and the growth in herbaceous layer was more vigorous than shrub layer.
    Calculation Method Study of Integrated Disturbance Index about Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia Mixed Stand
    LÜ Yong, LÜ Feizhou, ZANG Hao, LI Xinjian, MA Xin
    2013, 0(4):  33-36. 
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    Disturbance was very normal in nature.In order to quantify the extent of forest disturbed,this paper presented a new index called Integrated Disturbance Index,which can be used to express the degree of forest disturbed.Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia mixed stand in Longhushan Forest Farm in Hunan has been taken as an example.And this study indicated that it was disturbed.And the theory of Charles Darwin showed that the intraspecific competition of species is the most intense,so we can make sure that the intraspecific competition of Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia was the main interference factor.So thinning should be done to Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia;Liquidambar formosana Hance and Cinnamomum camphora(L.)Presl were in poor growth because of people’s disturbance and Quercus fabri Hance grew well.
    Modelling Progress of Stem Profiles
    DUAN Aiguo, ZHANG Jianguo
    2013, 0(4):  37-41. 
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    Taper model is scientific basis for the accurate prediction of total stem volume,merchantable volume and financial benefits of trees or stands.The classification and research status of taper model were introduced,and in view of the relationship between taper indices,taper model and stand management,this paper deeply expounded the theoretical basis and technical progress of taper model,which reflects the effect of stand management variables. And furtherly it pointed out that modelling of stem profiles in stands under different management conditions is development trendency and technology of taper model building.
    Implications of Carbon Accounting for Land Use Change in China from IPCC Methodology
    LU Heli, ZHAO Jincai, JIANG Lin
    2013, 0(4):  42-46. 
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    This paper make a comprehensive overview of the carbon assessment methods of land use change provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC),and systematically summarized the efforts made by the Chinese scientists in the analysis on the BEF method,soil organic carbon management factor method and meta-analysis.It then analyzed the suitability of carbon assessment methods of land use change in China provided by IPCC.The result shows that IPCC methodological framework is still insufficient to be used for carbon source and exchange for approval in Chinese land use change.Finally,it pointed out the existing problems and put forward proposals in the approved study of the carbon source and exchange.
    Study on the Carbon Content Rate Distribution Characteristics of Dominant Tree Species of Three Communities in Daqinggou of Horqin
    LI Kaifeng, LUO Yuyang, WANG Shusen, LI Xiaoyu, LIU Bo WANG Bo, WANG Xu, DAO Runa
    2013, 0(4):  47-52. 
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    Through the measurement of organs carbon content rate,the study was conducted on distribution of carbon content rate under different organs of different species and same tree species in the plant communities of Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr,Quercus mongolica Fisch.ex Turcz,and Ulums macrocarpa Hance in Daqinggou of Horqin.The results were as follows:(1)The different aged branches of Ulums macrocarpa Hance.and Quercus mongolica Fisch.ex Turcz.carbon content rate range difference are maximum(2.46%),three tree species carbon content rate of different aged branches present significant differences.(2)Three tree species carbon content rate of different thickness roots are different,in the average the root carbon content rate of Quercus mongolica Fisch.ex Turcz.(50.6%)higher than in the average the roots carbon content rate of Ulums macrocarpa Hance.(46.42%)and Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr.(46.25%).(3)Fraxinus mandschurica Rupr.Quercus mongolica Fisch.ex Turcz.and Ulums macrocarpa Hance.,three tree species organ carbon content varied between 48.17% and 53.92%,45.58% and 51.44% and 46.25% and 51.68%.Thus,different species carbon content rate due to the impact from genetic factors,even if the different organs of the same species carbon content rate are also different because of the carbon content、organ composition and organ growth years.
    Research on Carbon Density and Storage of the Larix gmelinii Virgin Forest Ecosystem
    LI Zhuofan, TIE Niu, XIN Weiwei, SU Xingquan, LI Tieniu
    2013, 0(4):  53-58. 
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    This paper uses woods,underground vegetation,litters and coarse woody debris of types of Inner Mongolia Daxinganling virgin forests and their four kinds of carbon library layers and various organs of trees to research the carbon density and storage and also the method of combining field sampling and indoor experimental analysis.The 5 kinds of virgin forest types are Ledum palustre-Larix gmelinii virgin forest,Rhododendra-Larix gmelinii virgin forest,Betula exilis-Larix gmelinii virgin forest,Grass-Larix gmelinii virgin forest,Bryaceae-Larix gmelinii virgin forest.The result shows that (1)among the trees,the sequence of different organ carbon content of Larix gmelinii is bark,leaf,trunk,branch and root,accounting for 54.89%,21.98%,10.76%,9.65% and 2.72% of the tree’s total carbon density.(2)The carbon density sequence of the 5 kinds of forest stands is:Grass-Larix gmelinii virgin forest(83.992 4 t/hm2),Rhododendra-Larix gmelinii virgin forest(54.788 8 t/hm2),Bryaceae-Larix gmelinii virgin forest(50.612 1 t/hm2),Ledum palustre-Larix gmelinii virgin forest(49.396 4 t/hm2) and Betula exilis-Larix gmelinii virgin forest(48.587 8 t/hm2) and the mean carbon density of the Larix gmelinii forest ecological system is 57.475 5 t/hm2.(3) In the research area,the total carbon storage of the Larix gmelinii forest ecological system is 2.840 3 TgC and the carbon library space distribution sequence is tree layer (2.054 3 TgC),falling object layer(0.349 5 TgC),understory vegetation layer (0.231 6 TgC) and galleries woody debris(0.204 9 TgC).The total carbon storage in the ecological system is 72.33%,12.31%,8.15% and 7.21%。
    Study on Biomass Forecast Model of Main Arborous Forest Stand in the Middle Part of Yin Mountains
    YANG Xiao, ZHANG Qiuliang
    2013, 0(4):  59-64. 
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    The thesis makes a research on three main forest types,i.e.birch natural forest,Pinus tabulaeformis plantation and Larix principis-rupprechtii artificial forest in the middle part of Yin Mountains (Daqingshan Nature Reserves)of Inner Mongolia.According to the main sample stand factor survey and biological productivity determination,we use 10 kinds of mathematical models to make regress analysis of standing biomass and the volume.The results show that power model has the best effect regression for birch natural forest and Larix principis-rupprechtii artificial forest and Cubic model fits for Pinus tabulaeformis plantation.Meanwhile,we use forest management inventory data (2006)of the survey of forest the design team of Inner Mongolia for forest biomass estimation.
    Research on Carbon Storage Estimate and Dynamic Change of Dashahe Nature Reserve Ecosystem
    LI Man, YANG Guangbin, MOU Zhihui, LI Xuedong, CHEN Tao
    2013, 0(4):  65-71. 
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    Based on TM and survey data,GIS and object-oriented technology was used to extract ecological system type of Dashahe Nature Reserve in 2000 and 2010,the evaluation index system of the carbon storage function established and store carbon spatial patterns and rules of the studied area over the past ten years analyzed.The results indicate that,in 2000,the carbon storage was 318.22×104 t,the average carbon storage density was 117.90 t/hm2,in 2010,the carbon storage was 372.51×104 t,the average carbon storage density was 138.02 t/hm2,the variation of carbon storage was 54.29×104 t,the annual change rate was 5.43×104 t/a.The order of four carbon pools in study area from 2000 and 2010 was the up carbon storage,the soil carbon storage,the down carbon storage and the dead carbon storage.
    Research on Guangxi Zhushan Mangrove Communities and Their Distribution Patterns
    LI Lifeng, LIU Wenai
    2013, 0(4):  72-76. 
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    The paper takes the mangrove communities in Guangxi Zhushan as the research object in order to investigate the type,the density,the height,the vegetation coverage and the regenerated layers of the communities.The research shows the Zhushan mangrove community evolutionary changes from high to low tide beach as follow:Aegiceras corniculatum,Aegiceras corniculatum+Aricennia marina→Aegiceras corniculatum+Aricennia marina-Kandelia candel+Excoecaria agallocha Linn.+Aegiceras corniculatum+Acanthus ilicifolius+Acrostichum aureum Linn.,Aricennia marina+Aegiceras corniculatum→Aegiceras corniculatum,Aegiceras corniculatum+Aricennia marina.The distribution patterns are as follows:Aegiceras corniculatum are clumped and Aricennia marina,Kandelia candel,Excoecaria agallocha Linn.,Acanthus ilicifolius are distributed randomly.There are many community types in the beach with small areas which are disturbed by human race.The dominant communities are Aegiceras corniculatum and Aegiceras corniculatum+Aricennia marina which are low monolayer shrubby.There are updated layers in each quadrat beach and the height difference of the updated layers is significant, which indicates that the mangrove communities are still in their early stages of development.
    Analysis on Management Benefits of Larix pricipis-rupprechtii Forest in Yanshan Mountains
    MU Shuai, ZHANG Shuzi, GAI Liyan, ZHI Qiankun, HUANG Xuanrui
    2013, 0(4):  77-83. 
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    Renovation of low-quality and low-benefit forest is to improve forest structure and forest productivity and enhance stand ecological functions.With the low quality and low yield forest in Yanshan Mountains in North China as the object of study,analysis and assessment were conducted on forest carbon sequestration and oxygen release value and water conservation value. The result showed that under different management measures,the improved forest carbon sequestration value of releasing oxygen and water conservation value have increased significantly.In terms of overall functional value,the artificial regeneration produced highest economic value,53 850.04 yuan/hm2,followed by selective cutting transformation 20 753.5 yuan/hm2,vegetation recovery 18 767.15 yuan/hm2,the clearcutting transformation 15 932.75 yuan/hm2,introduced shrubs 13 883.86 yuan/hm2,closure and cutting ban 12 460.24 yuan/hm2.
    Study on Species Diversity Composite Index
    LÜ Yong, YE Tao, LÜ Feizhou, LI Xinjian
    2013, 0(4):  84-87. 
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    Through use of richness,evenness and diversity to evaluate species diversity,the concept of Species Diversity Composite Index is proposed,breaking traditional and unilateral limitations of species diversity description.With multiple raw data based on selected indicators and use of CRITIC law the weights are established and each forest Species Diversity Composite Index measurement model developed,which reflects both the diversity indices of traditional information and the actual sample data. This makes the results of the composite index more reasonable and objective.
    Study on Investigation and Division of the Resources of Quercus in Northern China
    LI Yueqiao, Li Yingchao, WU Zhizhuang
    2013, 0(4):  88-93. 
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    In order to realize scientific and reasonable exploitation and utilization of the resources of Quercus in northern China,the systematic investigation and division of the resources of Quercus in northern China were studied in this paper.The main results are as follows:distribution range of the Quercus is at the south of 53°18′ north latitude and 105°42′~134°46′ east longitude,spanning 13 provinces,municipalities or autonomous region in the north of China.The upper and lower bounds of vertical distribution of Quercus appeared a general trend of gradual fall from southwest toward east and north in northern China.The resources of Quercus in northern China were divided into eight concentrated distribution zones,four secondary concentrated distribution zones and several sprinkling distribution area.The total area in the concentrated distribution area and secondary concentrated area was about 9 639 300 hm2.The middle-aged forest and young forest in concentrated distribution zones and secondary concentrated distribution zones were main stand type and the proportions of resources approximately account for 75.38% of the total resources.There were big differences in the resources of area,structure of stand age,in the concentrated distribution or secondary concentrated distribution zone.The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for the study and utilization of the resources of Quercus in northern China.
    Characteristics of Woody Debris in Grass-Larix Gmelinii Successive Cutting Forest in Different Ages
    WANG Fei, ZHANG Qiuliang, GAO Xiaowei, WANG Shuotao, GAO Wei, XU Yanyan
    2013, 0(4):  94-99. 
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    By using two kinds of criteria and comparing the storage and the characteristics of the coarse woody debris,the storage of the coarse woody debris in the different aged grass-larix gmeliniiin successive cutting forest were studied.The results indicated that the storage of woody debris capacity was about 6.27~61.38 t/hm2,the density,volume and biomass of CWD derived from Harmon criterion were 499~900 trees/hm2,4.73~130.59 m3/hm2 and 2.22~60.39 t/hm2,respectively,which were higher than that derived from LTER criteria by 31.15%~66.74%,2.66%~34.75% and 2.96%~11.15%,respectively.With the increase of stand age,the volume of CWD derived from Harmon criterion exhibited feature as stand age increasing,both density and biomass of CWD showed a near irregular distribution.The density of CWD derived from LTER criterion decreased gradually (587,325 and 300 trees/hm2),the volume and biomass increased first and then decreased.With the increase of decay class,the CWD density of young forest and mature forest derived from Harmon criterion, the volume and biomass of young forest,near-mature forest and mature forest all increased first and then decreased.The Variation of CWD density,volume and biomass derived from LTER criterion are in consistency with Harmon criteria,only the decay class Ⅰ proportion slightly reduced.
    Study on Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on the Leakage Amount of K+,Ca2+ and Mg2+ in Leaves of Alnus formosana
    XU Caiyao, HUANG Guifen, WU Chengzhen, HONG Wei, LI Jian, LIN Yongming
    2013, 0(4):  100-103. 
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    The effect of leakage amount of K+,Ca2+ and Mg2+ in leaves with different pH of simulated acid rain was investigated by spraying experiments.After a certain period of acid rain stress time,the leakage amount of K+,Ca2+ and Mg2+ in leaves of Alnus formosana seedlings decreased with the increasing of pH value,showing a negative correlation effect.The leakage amount of K+ in leaves of treatment I-V decreased by 34%,25.5%,17.4%,16.7%,11.4% compared with the control (CK);the leakage amount of Ca2+ in leaves of treatment I-V decreased by 36%,25%,18%,5%,3% compared with the control (CK);the leakage amount of I-V treatment of Mg2+ in leaves decreased by 58.3%,41.6%,37.5%,29.2%,22.1% compared with the control (CK).The changes of leakage amount of K+ and Mg2+ in leaves generally increased firstly and decreased afterwards with the prolonging of stress time,but the leakage amount of Ca2+ gradually decreased.
    Dryness and Humidity Changes of the Desertificated Areas in China over the Past Ten Years
    FU Rong
    2013, 0(4):  104-108. 
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    Precipitation plays a decisive role,in the maintenance and stabilization of the ecosystem in arid zones.This paper uses geostationary meteorological satellite and ground meteorological data and the Chinese energy water balance monitoring methods to monitor plant environment changes to provide a scientific basis for land desertification dynamic change research in China. Since 2000,the annual average precipitation has in creased in most areas of northern China,the climate is generally warm in arid regions and the ecological environment has improved in some areas. In arid region of North China for nearly 10 years precipitation has slightly risen. The soil moisture index and the precipitation tendency is consistent and the ecological environment is relatively better. In eastern Inner Mongolia,Alashan plateau and Hexi Corridor,precipitation and soil moisture index have slightly increased,increased obviously in northern Qinghai.
    Technical Application
    Quantitative Analysis on the Relationship between Land Use and Soil Erosion Based on RS and GIS in Acheng District of Harbin City
    ZHI Changgui, GONG Wenfeng, ZHANG Jing, ZHANG Yun
    2013, 0(4):  109-113. 
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    Based on the technology of RS and GIS,the RS image of Landsat TM in 2007 was used as the main data source to obtain the data of land use and erosion of study region. Through the spatial analysis module,the land use and erosion was overlaied to quantitatively analyze the relationship between present state of land use types and soil erosion data.The study results show that the cropland and forestland took an absolute dominate position,which accounted for 90.30% of total area of study region. The soil erosion intensity was mainly low and moderate,while the severe soil erosion exited in some local areas. The area of forestland in wild erosion was largest,while cropland occupied the largest area in light soil erosion. However,the area of unused land in each soil erosion extensity was smallest. Meanwhile,the unused land had no distribution in severe soil erosion.
    The Key Issues and Recommendations on Management Information System of Forest Property Rights Registration
    SHI Yan, WANG XiaoLi, DAI Hui
    2013, 0(4):  114-119. 
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    Based on the current situation of the management information system of forest property rights certification registration established in provinces,we have analyzed the problems existing in all information systems and propose to set up a national multi-level linkage information system of forest property rights registration and WEB information publishing platform so as to realize the information inquiry and collection,statistical analysis and data update,and to realize the abutting joint with provincial system and data sharing.
    Study on Estimation Model and Dynamic Change of Urban Forest Carbon Storage Based on RBF and RS    ——A Case Study in Nanjing
    LING Ziyan, HUANG Jin
    2013, 0(4):  120-125. 
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    NDVI and SWVI derived from Landsat TM images are blent into Radial Basis Function to generate an estimation model of forest carbon storage in Nanjing,and this model is compared with Regression Model.The results show that:(1)The precision of Radial Basis Function Model is 74.62%,it’s more stable and has higher precision than Regression Model,so it’s a relatively simple,easy-to-operate and accurate estimation method for carbon storage of forest;(2)From spatial distribution pattern perspective,the forest carbon storage in Nanjing is distributed extensively,but not even regionally.From time dynamic change perspective,during the period of 1988 to 2005,the forest carbon storage of each district declined in different degrees,the descent rates were listed in a low-to-high order:Qixia,Xuanwu,Xiaguan,Yuhuatai,Gulou,Baixia,Qinhuai and Jianye.
    GIS-based Ecological Classification System of Forest Landscape in Qingshan Forest Farm
    GUO Hong, LU Yuanchang, LEI Xiangdong, HONG Lingxia
    2013, 0(4):  126-130. 
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    Based on contour lines and attribute data from forest resource inventory,Ecological Land Types (ELT)and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTP)of Qishan Forest Farm located in Pingxiang town,Guangxi province were classified by using spatial analysis in Geographic Information System.ELT and ELTP are the lowest level of Ecological Classification System (ECS).ELT which includes environmental information can provide references for forest management and ELTP which includes both environmental information and plant coverage information can provide a basis for forest division and subcompartment adjustment.
    Technical Research on the Synergistic Regeneration Mode of the Modern Landscape Resources
    LI Wei, JIA Hongbo, GAO Nan
    2013, 0(4):  131-134. 
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    This article proposes the landscaping resources synergistic data update model,summarizes and analyzes the correlation technique of data update of landscape and forestry,and achieves the synergistic update of indoor and field jobs and three level linkage(province/city,county and township levels)and spatial graphical data and the questionnaire of attribute data.Based on this,we built the landscape and forestry resources synergistic management system,design and develop data update functions and logical structure of this system,and completed the update database maintenance and the prototype of system construction.
    Research Bulletin
    Research on the Development of Under-forest Economy    ——Taking Shaanxi Province as an Example
    Du Deyu
    2013, 0(4):  135-139. 
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    This paper takes the development of under-forest economic development in Shaanxi Province as an example,studies the scientific connotation and the basic characteristics of under-forest economy,and also studies policy background and basic content of developing under-forest economy.It also analyzes the problems in the process of under-forest economy and and puts forward four under-forest economic development suggestions in modifying the forest law,improving the supporting policies,the government helping making a good plan,making the plan in advance,perfection of market economy mechanism,fostering industrial development,perfecting technology policy and raising personnel’s technical level.
    Thinking on Wildlife Borne Disease Surveillance and Control
    SUN Heting
    2013, 0(4):  140-143. 
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    All aspects of the forestry work are faced with new opportunities and challenges while ecological civilization construction has been brought into the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics.The author discussed the inherent relationship between wildlife borne disease surveillance and control (WDSC)and ecological civilization construction,and figured that WDSC was an inevitable requirement,important content and strong protection measure for ecological civilization construction.Thus WDSC has unique status and significance for carrying out the human-nature harmony.Hoping to offer reference for accelerating WDSC the author analyzed the current overall trend,and then put forward countermesures and suggestions including strengthening organization and guidance,better propaganda and coordination,enhancing system construction and perfecting the long-acting guarantee mechanism.
    Study on Plant Diversity in Qinghai Datongbeiheyuanqu Nature Reserve
    MENG Meng, LIU Huifang, ZHANG Shumiao, MA Guoqing
    2013, 0(4):  144-147. 
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    Based on the richness,evenness and species diversity indicators,this paper analyzed diversity level of 10 kinds of resource plants,such as edible plants,oil plants,wild forage plants,medicinal plants,wood plants,tanning plants,aromatic plants,fiber plants,environmental protection plants,honey plants in Qinghai Datongbeiheyuanqu Nature Reserve.The result showed that:medicinal plant richness was the highest (R=49.85033),the second was environmental protection plants,while honey plants minimal;environmental protection plants evenness was the highest (J=0.064914),the second was medicinal plants,nectar source plant the lowest;medicinal plants diversity index was the highest (H′=0.362267),the second was environmental protection plants,while honey plants minimal.Thus,the diversity of medicinal plant resources was higher than others;its utilization prospect was the best in Qinghai Datongbeiheyuanqu Nature Reserve.
    New Developments in Other Countries
    Enlightenment from Sweden Forestry for the Deepening of the Collective Forest Tenure System Reform
    XING Hong, SHEN Suhua, YU Yue
    2013, 0(4):  148-151. 
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    Sweden forestry performs well in protect of the ecological environment,but at the same time,provides the world with 10% of the world’s wooden products such as sawn timber,paper and pulp with its less than 10% of the world commercial forest land area. The family tree farm is given priority to the structure of property right,security and stability of the property management system,moderate and reasonable scale of operation,scientific and effective organization management organization,which provides reference for the deepening of the collective forest tenure system reform in China.